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75 Cards in this Set

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SK
Swartkrans
What is the genus and species of ER 1470?
Homo habilis, E. Lake Turkana
lanky torso with long, well-muscled limbs
Homo ergaster
number of lumbar in modern human
5
Which site is more acurate when it comes to dating? (South Africa or East Africa)
East Africa
What is the genus and species of Zinj?
A. boisei, Olduvai Gorge, Mary Leaky
~900-1100cc
Homo ergaster
Robust or Gracile: A./P. aethiopicus
robust
OH
Olduvai Gorge (refers to Olduvai Homonid)
KNM
Kenya National Museum (precedes ER or WT)
Robust or Gracile: A. garhi
gracile
hominid with first significant change in cranial capacity
Homo habilis
What was the former name of East Rudolph?
East Turkana
What is the genus and species of the Taung child?
A. africanus,3-6 year old child, first australopithecine found
Anatomical features of robust austalopithecines:
-sagittal crest
-large zygomatics
-postorbital constriction
-postcanine megadontia
-small incisors and canines
-very large mandible-in response to the huge teeth and forces going through it
-reorientation of temporalis muscle
-small brain
biostratigraphy
faunal existence in the earths layers
What are the two S. Africa locations?
Sterkfontein and Swartkrans
What is the genus and species of ER 1813?
Homo habilis, E. Lake Turkana
Dmanisi
Homo ergaster
Despite the major changes in _____ in the robust and gracile austropiths, there is no diff. in body size.
crania
What is volcanc ash dated with?
K/Ar dating
What is the genus and species of STS 5?
A. afrianus
Hexian
Homo erectus
S. Africa lacks ______.
datable volcanic ash tuffs
STS
Sterkfonstein
What is the genus and species of the Black Skull?
A. aethiopia, West Turkana
tool industry was Acheulean
Homo erectus
Many fossilsin S. Africa are found by _____.
quarry workers = original context lost forever
WT
West Turkana
What is the genus and species of SK48?
A. robustus
Homo erectus is found in what region(s)?
Eastern Asia
In South Africa, most fossils are found embedded in _____.
a limestone matrix
Geological uplifting where, has exposed fossils that have been buried for years?
Rift Valley
What is the genus and species of Lucy?
A. afarensis, 40% complete skeleton, Hadar
cranial capacity ~750 - 1,100cc
Homo erectus
When there are no volcanic ash tuffs to date fossils by, what is the dating method used?
relative dating method - faunal correlation
ER
East Rudolph
AL
Afar Locality
early ______ in Africa is associated with the Oldowan tool industry.
Homo ergaster
Has a very thin enamel unlike later hominids
Ardipithecus ramidus
Zhoukoudain
Homo erectus
charcteristics of australopithecines
SABERS
-Bipedal
-Specialized chewing system
(pronounced in robust form)
-Adapted to savanna open air
environment
-Eat vegitation primarily
-Reflect high degrees of
sexual dimorphism
-Small brains
Ngandong
Homo erectus
_______ is very hard to date.
limestone
The diet of the robust australopithecines wore their what down?
teeth...significantly more than modern humans
The cranial capacity of all austropiths are?
very ape-like
___ is the forst to move out of Africa and into more temperate regions.
Homo ergaster
normal amount of lumbar in early hominids
6
Robust or Gracile: A. afarensis
gracile
1.9 - 1.4 mya
Homo ergaster
Most of the changes in theskulls of the robust australopithecines are due to _______.
diet
Olduvai Gorge
Homo Ergaster
Robust or Gracile: A. africanus
gracile
Nariokotome (West Lake Turkana)
Homo ergaster
first to use fire, but unlikely to control it
Homo erectus
intermembral index of approximately 75%
Homo ergaster
Swartkrans
Homo ergaster
Robust or Gracile: Ardipithecus ramidus
gracile
first ____ found in 1891 by Eugene Dubois in Java at the site of Trinil
Homo erectus
Ternifine
Homo ergaster
Sangiran
Homo erectus
What did robust australopithecines eat?
tough, hard, gritty foods
i.e. seeds, nuts, tubers
~1.8 mya - 100,000 ya
Homo erectus
WT 15000 - Nariokotomoe Bay
-Homo ergaster
-most complete skeleton prior to neanderthals
Robust or Gracile: Australopithecus anamensis
gracile
been called Pithecanthropus erectus, Java Man, Peking Man, Pithecanthropus soloensis, Sinanthropus
Homo erectus
Longgupo
Homo erectus
Trinil
Homo erectus
East Turkana (East Rudolph)
Homo ergaster
Robust or Gracile: A./P. robustus
robust
Robust or Gracile: A./P. boisei
robust
_______were the first to bury their dead
neanderthals
Robust or Gracile: Homo (Australopithecus) habilis
gracile
first evidence of modern limb proportions
Homo ergaster
_____ is considered to be the same species as Homo ergaster, with the minor diffs. explained as regional diff.
Homo ergaster