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15 Cards in this Set

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Salenthropus tchadensis
7-6mya, central Africa, 350cc

(close to pongid/hominid divergence, signs point to bipedality and nonhoning chewing)
Orrorin tugenensis
6mya, E. Africa, unknown cc

(bipedalism, time in trees, nonhoning chewing, lived in forest)
Ardipithecus kaddaba & Ardipithecus ramidus
5.8-4.4mya, E. Africa, unknown cc

(lived in forest, spent time in trees & ground)
Australopithecus anamensis
4mya, E. Africa, unknown cc

(larger canines, parallel teeth)
Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy)
3.6-3mya, E.Africa, 430cc

(larger teeth, Oldowan tool use - EARLIEST)
Australopithecus aethiopicus
2.5mya, E. Africa, 410cc
Australopithecus boisei
2.3-1.2mya, E.Africa, 510cc
Australopithecus sediba
2.0-1.5mya, S.Africa, 420cc

(small body long arms, homo-like pelvis possibly
Australopithecus robustus
2mya, S.Africa, 530cc

(large teeth and head)
Homo habilis
3-2.5mya, East and South Africa, 900cc

(similar to Aust. body plan but bigger brain and smaller chewing complex - variable diet, used stone tools, precision grip)
Homo erectus
1.8-0.3mya, E. Africa Asia Europe (rapid spread), 900cc

(Acheulian handaxe, short arms long legs, tall)
Early archaic Homo sapiens
350,00 yBP, Africa Asia Europe, 1100-1300cc

(evolved from H.erectus, had same large brow, but had reduced robusticity, smaller teeth, bigger brains, more culture)
Late archaic Homo sapiens
350,000-30,000 yBP, Africa, Asia, Europe, 1200cc early, 1500cc late

(less robust, smaller back teeth but larger front teeth)
(used Acheulian tech early, Mousterian late, big game hunters, buried dead after 100,000yBP, used symbols, social care, speech)
Neandertals
(part of late archaic h.sapiens)

130,000-30,000 yBP in Europe, 60,000-40,000 yBP in W. Asia

features: wide nose, projecting face, long low skull, large front teeth, wide body and short limbs

- large brains, some as big as 1700cc??
- adapted to cold, associated with Mousterian, successful hunters
-buried dead, used symbols, possible speech
Homo sapiens
Africa 160,000 yBP
W Asia 90,000 yBP
E Asia 35,000 yBP
Europe 32,000 yBP

1500cc

Upper Pleistocene/Paleolithic - cave art, burial w/ grave goods, less hunting more fishing, more fishing tech, more plants

- features: reduced face, small teeth, vert forehead, more rounded skull, gracile postcranial bones
- heat-adapted body morphology = small trunk and long limbs