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90 Cards in this Set

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When does human reproductive system become fully functional?
Puberty
What is the function of the male penis?
deliver sperm to female vagina
What is the function of the female vagina?
transports menstral fluid to the exterior & is the birth canal
primary male sex organ
testes
name the sac that surrounds the testes
scrotum
purpose of the epididymis
store sperm
sperm leaves the epididymis and travels through the ....
vas deferens
why's the urethra part of both the urinary and reproductive systems?
passes through the penis & transports sperm to the outside of the body
describe the prostate gland
small, donut-shaped gland. surrounds upper portion of the urethra
what is the pH of seminal fluid? is it acidic or basic?
about 7.5 (basic)
name the sugar in seminal fluid
fructose
why's there sugar in seminal fluid?
give sperm energy
what do the postaglandin's in semen do? what is the purpose of this?
causes the uterus to contract . to help the sperm reach the egg
where do testes develop?
abdominal cavity
when do testes descend into the scrotum?
last 2 months of fetal development
if a male's testes don't drop, why will they stay sterile?
temperature of internal body if too high to produce viable sperm
three parts of a sperm
head, middle, tail
what's stored in the acrosome?
enzymes (needed to penestrate egg)
the normal male ejaculation contains how many sperm cells?
several hunderd million
how long do sperm usually survive in the femal reproductive tract?
up to 48 hours
how long would the epididymis be in uncoiled?
6 meters
when do sperm start to swim?
when they enter the vagina
what do the seminal vesicles produce?
fructose and prostglandis
whats the purpose of the bulbourethral glands?
lubricates end of penis to prepare for sexual intercourse
how does Viagra work?
inhibits an enzyme that breaks down cGMP (ensures full erection will take place)
what might be a side effect of Viagra?
vision problems
how many sperm could be in a 3.5mL of ejactulate?
400 million
Does the levels of testosterone in males fluctuate or stay the same most of the time?
same most of the time
4 secondary sex characteristics
1) pattern of male hair growth
2) activity of cutaneous glands
3) pitch of voice
4) muscle growth
3 ways testosterone makes males and females different
1) greater muscular strength
2) pubic hair tapers down toward naval
3) grows beard
primary female sex organ
ovaries
2 things ovaries do
produce eggs & hormones
egg released from ovary goes to ....
fallopian tubes
egg is fertilized in ....
uterus
implantation is
attatchment of embryo to uterus wall
wheres the embryo and fetus develop?
uterus
lining of uterus
endometrium
from where does the placenta develop?
endometrium
what can be found at the lower end of the uterus
cervix
at what angle does the cervix enter the vagina
right angle
another name for vagina
birth canal
what happens during menstration if fertilization of implantation does not occur?
endometrium is shedded
state the collective name for the female genital organs?
vulva
# of ovaries
2
what holds ovaries in place
several ligaments
name for immature egg
oocyte
is a female born with all of her eggs?
yes
how many eggs ever mature?
400
whats oogenesis?
production of eggs
how many chormosomes does an egg have?
23
a zygote has __ chromosomes
46
2 names for uterin tubes
fallopian tubes

oviducts
how does an egg move into uterine tubes?
fimbrae sweep over ovary at time of ovulation. suction is formed by beating of cilia
describe ectopic pregnancy
outside uterus
3 parts of uterus
fundus, body, cervix
normal width of uterus ... width when stretched by baby
5 cm - 30 cm
describe pap smear
removal of cells from from region of cervix
whats a hysterectomy?
removal of uterus
whats meant by "clitoris is homologous to the penis?"
clitoris has a shaft and is capped by pea-shaped glands
does the vagina produce fluids? why?
yes - lubrication
clitoris can swell ______ times its normal size
2-3
whats estrogen do?
stimulates growth of uterus/vagina, necessary for egg maturation & development of secondary sex characteristics
female secondary sex characteristics
1) pattern of body hair
2) fat distribution
3) enlarged pelvic girdle
4) breast development
whats required for breast development
estrogen & progeterone
how longs the menstral cycle? range?
28 days .... 18-40
whats mensus
flow of blood & tissues
describe menopause
period in a woman's life during which the menstrual cycle ceases
age of menopause
45-55 years old
at what time will women not be able to have children
menstration's been absent for 1 year
symptoms of menopause
"hot flashes"
dizziness
headaches
insomnia
sleepiness
depression
each breast contains how many lobules?
15-25
describe the areola
pigmented area surrounding nipple
why would a newborn secrete milk the first couple days of their lives?
hormones affect child
if a baby does not suckle its mothers breast, will it produce milk?
no
hows birth control pills work?
combination of estrogen & progesterone shut down production of FSH & LH so no folicle develops in ovary
whats IUD?
intrauterine device
hows IUD's work
inserted in uterus - disturbs environment of uterus & uterine tubes so implantation/fertilization cant occur
whers a diaphragm lodge?
behind pelivc bone, fits over cervix
used in conjunction with diaphragm
spermicidal jelly
diaphragm is left in for ___
6 hours after sex
used in conjunction with condom
spermicide
hows contraceptive implants work
disrupt events of menstral cycle
how often should you get contraceptive injections?
3 months -> few weeks
what types of vaccines are being developed?
contraceptive
morning after pill works by ..
upsets normal uterine cycle so embryo cant implant itself
infertility
no pregnancy aftr 1 year of regular, unprotected sex
normal cause of infertility
low sperm count
endometriosis
uterine tissue grows on outside uterus
artificial insemination
sperm placed in vagina by physician
what is In Vitro Fertilization
immature eggs are matured in a lab, sperm is added, 2-4 days later the embryo is placed in uterus