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92 Cards in this Set

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Structuralism
Titchener - structure of mind, analyzed structure and content of mental states by introspection, and was concerned with reducing experience to its basic parts
Functionalism
James - how the mind adapts us to our environment. Influenced by Darwin/evolution.
Behaviorism
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner - stressed study of observable behavior, not observable consciousness
Psychoanalysis
Freud - study of unconscious mental processes, argued that people are driven by sexual urges and that most emotional conflucts date back to early childhood experiences
Gestalt
Wertheimer - perception and that stimuli are perceived as whole entities rather than parts put together
Humanistic
Rogers, Maslow - humans have enormous potential for personal growth, emphasized importance of free will, human ability to make choices and uniqueness of individual
Cognitive
Piaget - internal, mental representations that are used in perceiving, remembering, thinking and understanding
According to behaviorist - personality is a
what is a collection of learned behavior patterns - according to behaviorist
Bandura
learning occurs by observing what others do and that these observations form an important part of personality
self-efficacy
expectation of success - high will approach new situations confidently because they believe success is probable; low - expect to do poor and avoid challenges
reciprocal determinism
personality, behavior, and environment constantly influence one another and shape each other
situational specificity
Mischel - we often behave differently in different situations
internal locus of control
people see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences
external locus of control
people see their behavior as controlled by fate, chance or luck and are less likely to change their behavior as a result of reinforcement
accommodation
adjusting prior knowledge gained through former experiences
assimilation
fitting together new information with what has been previously known or understood
sensorimotor
birth to age two - Piaget
preoperational
ages 2 - 7; egocentrism, rigidity of thought, semilogical reasoning and limited social cognition; individuals think more in terms of what they can't do versus what they can do
concrete operations
ages 7 - 11; learners begin to decenter; consider viewpoints of others and not just their own; perform transformations; categorize; inductive reasoning; manipulate symbols if they are given concrete examples
formal operations
ages 11 - 15; engage in logical, abstract and hypothetical thought; use scientific method; plan and anticipate verbal cues; deductive and inductive reasoning; don't need concrete examples
initiative
preschoolers and primary aged children must be able to function in the outside world independent of their parents
guilt
when preschoolers and primary aged children are not able to move away from total parental attachment and control
idustry
when a child enters school (thus achieving initiative) and learns
inferiority
when a child enters school and does not learn
psychodynamic theories on peronsality
personality is shaped by early experiences with parents - who believes this?
Id - describe the characteristics
develops at birth; pleasure principle (always seeks pleasure and avoids pain); unconsious instints (has no contact with reality); irrational; instant gratification; contains libido
Ego - describe the characteristics
develops around six months; reality priciple; mediates id and reality; executive branch because it makes rational decisions (cannot determine if something is right or wrong)
Superego - describe the characteristics
develops around six years; morality principle; personal conscience; personal ideals - does not consider reality, only rules about moral behavior
rationlization
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior - reducing guilt "because everybody does it"
repression
pushing unacceptable id impules out of awareness and back into the unconscious - having no memory of an unpleasant experienc
reaction formation
behaving in exactly the opposite of one's true feelings - mother who feels resent towards child may be overly cautious/protective
regression
reversion to immature patterns of behavior - temper tantrums
projection
attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, motives or shortcomings to others
displacement
shifting uncomfortable feelings from their original source to a safer, substitute target - angry with your boss but instead you argue/yell at a family member
sublimation
useful, socially acceptable course of behavior replaces a socially unacceptable or distasteful impulse;
intellectualization
dealing with a stressful situation in an intellectual and unemotional manner, a person detaches himself from the stress - a person who loses a family member due to illness will willingly discuss illness in medical terms but not discuss emotional aspects
denial
denying that a very unpleasant thing has happened
Oral - what is the age, zone and description
0-18 months; mouth; stimulation of mouth produces pleasure; enjoys sucking, biting, chewing
Anal - what is the age, zone and description
18-36 months; anus; toilet training is a major task - expelling and retaining feces produces pleasure
Phallic - what is the age, zone and description
3-6 years; genitals; oedipal (boys) and electra (girls) - children have erotic desires for opposite sex parent as well as feelings of fear and hostility for same sex parent - successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with same sex parent
Latency - what is the age, zone and description
6-12 years; none; sexual feelings are repressed; social contacts beyond immediate family are expanded
Genital - what is the age, zone and description
puberty onward; genitals; establishing intimate, sexual relations with others is the main focus
What is fixation?
according to Freud, children experience conflicts between urges in their erogenous zones and societal rules - this can result when these urges are either frustrated or overindulged -
What is a sample?
subset of population selected to participate in the study
what is a population?
all members of a class or set from which a smaller sample may be drawn - and about whom the researcher wants to draw conclusions is a?
what is a random sample
every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being picked for inclusion in the study
what is a biases sample
every member of the population does not have an equal chance of being chosen
what is a stratified sample
every relevant subgroup of the population is randomly selected in proportion to its size
what is a subject
individually who actually participate in a study
what does replications mean
research studies that are repeated, often under different conditions, in order to ensure the reliability of the result
what is an experiment
researcher systematically manipulates one or more variables and then observe how the research subjects react to manipulation
what is an independent variable
the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
what is a dependent variable
the response that is measured after the manipulation of the independent variable
what is the experimental group
the group that is exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable
what is the control group
the group that is not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable
what is random assignment
ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any one of the groups
what is quasi-experiment
when subjects are not randomly assigned groups
what is subject bias
when research participants behavior changes because they know they are being studied or because of their expectations
what is a placebo
an inactive substance given in the place of a drug
what is the placebo effect
it occrs when a participant believes they are experiencing a change due to an administered drug that is really a placebo
what is double blind technique
used to control both subject and observer bias - neither the subject nor the researcher who is measuring dependent variable know who is assigned to which group
what are the three functions of the nervous system
processes incoming information; integrates incoming information; influences and directs reactions to incoming information
what is the central nervous system responsible for
where does this happen - processing information and directing actions - brain and spinal cord - all nerves incased in bone
what is the peripheral nervous system
carry messages to and from the central nervous system - all nerves NOT incased in bone - made up of the somatic and autonomic
what is somatic division
carries messages inward to the central nervous system from the sensory organs and outward from the cns to the muscles for action
afferent neurons
these carry the messages in to the cns
efferent neurons
these carry the message from the cns to the muscles
what is autonomic division
who is responsible for involuntary functions of the body
what is sympathetic branch of autonomic division
what controls the fight or flight; activates the body for emergencies
what is parasympathetic branch of autonomic division
what branch quiets the body and conserves energy
Carl Rogers and the structure of personality
Roger's personality constructs are the organism and the self. The organism is conceived to be the locus of experience; experience includes everything available to the awareness and all that occurs within the organism. The self or self-concept refers to the organized and consistent set of perceptions that are self-referential, i.e., that refer to "I" or "me." It also includes the perceptions of the relationships between the self and the rest of the world. In addition to the self, there is an ideal self that represents what the individual aspires to be.
the medulla is responsible for
found at the top of the spinal cord that controls life support functions - breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
the cerebellum is responsible for
controls movement, coordination, balance, muscle tone, and learning motor skills
what is the reticular activating system
essential for regulation of sleep and wakefulness
the cerebrum is responsible for
complex mental activities - made up of four lobes
what is somatosensory lobe for
manages skin senses
what is occipital lobe for
manages visual cortex
what is temporal lobe for
contains the auditory cortex
what is the limbic system
controls emotion, motivation and memory
what is thalamus
relays and translates information from all the senses, except smell, to higher levels of the brain
what is hypothalamus
regulation of basic biological drives and controls autonomic functions such as hunger, thirst, body temperature and pituitary gland
what is proximodistal principle
development describing center outward direction of motor development - gaining control of torso before extremeties
what is cephalocaudal principle
describes head to foot direction of motor development - gain control over upper portions of body before lower part (reach and grasp before walking)
what is Weber's Law
the more intense the stimulus, the more the stimulus intensity has to be increased before a change is noticed
what is Fechner's Law
constant increases in a sensation produce smaller increases in perceived magnitude
what is frequency
the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency
what is pure tone
only one frequency
what is pitch
how high or low a tone sounds - varies by frequency and intensity
what is algorithms
a problem solving strategy where every possible solution is explored
what are heuristics
"rules of thumb" or shortcuts that help solve problems
divergent thinking
thinking that produces many different correct answers to the same problem or question
convergent thinking
one correct answer is expected