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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The pattern of physiologic growth is the same for all people.

The onset and duration of different stages of growth are the same for all people.
False- the "onset" and "duration" differs from person and person
Almost all growth is done by what age?
The pace of growth varies at different stages. This is described as what?
What are 5 indicators of growth?
- height
- weight
- bone size
- dentition
- sexual characteristics

an increase in complexity of function and skill progression
Development is the _________ aspect of growth (ex. developing the ability to walk, talk, and run).
Growth and development are continuous, orderly, and sequential processes influenced by what 3 factors?
- maturational factors
- environmental factors
- genetic factors
The sequence of each stage of growth and development are predictable. What is variable though?
- the time of onset, length and effects of each stage
What pattern of growth is particularly obvious at birth when an infant's head is disproportionately large?
cephalocaudal direction of growth
An infant learning to roll over before grasping an object with the thumb and second finger is an example of which principal of growth and development?
Growth/development occurring proximal to distal

Growth/development proceeds from simple to complex, or single acts to integrated acts.
Stages of growth and development are thought of as having what 5 major components?
1. physiologic
2. cognitive
3. psychosocial
4. moral
5. spiritual
Robert Havighurst believed what was basic to live?
Robert Havighurst developed a concept referred to as what?
Developmental Task theory
Why is the developmental task theory limited in its usefulness?
b/c of the broad categories limit the nurse when assessing specific accomplishments, and the definition of success varies cross-culturally.
What are the 7 tasks listed in the Middle Age developmental phase of Havighurst's developmental tasks?
1. achieving adult civic and social responsibility
2. establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living
3. assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults
4. developing adult leisure-time activities
5. relating oneself to one's spouse as a person
6. accepting and adjusting to the physiologic changes of middle age
7. adjusting to aging parents
How did Erik Erikson adapt and expand Freud's theory of development?
He included the entire life span
Erikson's theory proposes that life is a sequence of what?
developmental stages (levels of achievement)

Erikson stated that failure to complete a developmental stage impaired the person's ability to move onto the next phase.
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

Birth to 18 months "Infancy"
Trust vs. Mistrust
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

18 months to 3 years "Early Childhood"
Autonomy vs. shame & doubt
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

3-5 years "Late Childhood"
initiative vs. guilt
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

6-12 years "School Age"
industry vs. inferiority
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

12-20 years "Adolescence"
identity vs. role confusion
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

18-25 years "Young adulthood"
intimacy vs. isolation
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

25-65 years "Adulthood"
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Which stage of development (Erikson's theory):

65 years to death "Maturity"
Integrity vs. despair
What are 3 indicators of a positive resolution of Erikson's Generativity vs. Stagnation stage of development?
- creativity
- productivity
- concern for others
What are 3 indicators of a negative resolution of Erikson's Generativity vs. Stagnation stage of development?
- self-indulgence
- self-concern
- lack of interest and commitments
What is Generativity as defined by Erikson?
the willingness to establish and guide the next generation and care for others
What is Stagnation as defined by Erikson?
preoccupation with one's self and self-indulgence
What are Maslow's 5 levels of needs in ascending order (from most to least importance)?
1. Physiologic Needs
2. Safety and Security needs
3. Love and belonging needs
4. Self-esteem needs
5. Self-actualization
What are examples of Physiological needs according to Maslow? Where do these rank on the hierarchy?
- air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity and temperature maintenance

**These are ranked 1st in importance**
What are examples of Safety and Security needs according to Maslow? Where do these rank on the hierarchy?
- the need to feel safe physically and psychologically
- safe in the environment and in relationships

**These are ranked 2nd in importance**
What are examples of love and belonging needs according to Maslow? Where do these rank in the hierarchy?
- giving and receiving affection
- attaining a place in a group
- maintaining a feeling of belonging

**These are ranked 3rd in importance**
What are examples of Self-esteem needs according to Maslow? Where do these rank in the hierarchy?
- feelings of independence, competence, self-respect, acceptance, recognition and appreciation

**These are ranked 4th in importance**
What is self-actualization according to Maslow? Where does this rank on the hierarchy?
- if the need for self-esteem is satisfied, the individual may develop maximum potential and realize one's abilities and qualities

**this ranks 5th on the hierarchy, or the least important of needs**
Adulthood is divided into what 3 phases?
Young adults (20-40)
Middle-aged adults (40-65)
Elderly (over 65)
What are "boomerang kids"?
Young adults that have moved out of the home and lived independently, however return to the home for various reason (finances, school, divorce, etc.)
For the young adult (20-40) the primary psychosocial development is what?
the establishment of a relationship with another person and commitment to something

the state of maximal function and integration, or the state of being-fully developed
Physical changes that occur in middle age are more relevant in what culture?
Western Culture, which values a youthful appearance
A person's reaction to the changes seen in middle age is largely dependent on what?
their self-concept
What are 4 changes seen in the integument in middle age?
- decreased skin turgor
- less elasticity
- wrinkling
- sagging
What are 3 changes seen in the hair in middle age?
- thinning
- graying
- slower growth

There is an increase in taste sensation with middle age.
False- there is a decrease
What dental problem might be seen with middle age?
periodontal disease
What change can be seen in the abdomen with middle age?
decrease in strength of abdominal muscles
What changes in the musculoskeletal system can be seen in middle age? (3)
- decreased ROM
- decreased muscle mass
- increased recovery time after exertion
What type of women might have a more difficult time dealing with the physical changes of middle age? What about men?
Attractive women and athletic men

There is a double standard when it comes to aging; men are described in more flattering terms than women
In middle age, there is a decrease in height known as "settling". Women drop about how many inches? What about men?
2 inches for women
1 inch for men

Body fat/weight ratio increases with age.
Between the age of 20 and 60, there is a loss of about _____% of muscle strength.
There is a loss of visual acuity with aging. What vision ability is normal for age 20? 50? 80?
20- 20/20
50- 20/25
80- 20/45

loss of near vision; far-sightedness
Presbyopia typically occurs around what age?

increased pressure in the eyeball eventual leading to tunnel vision
What 3 changes can be seen in the eyes with middle age?
- thicker optic lens
- decreased peripheral vision
- decreased ability to focus

loss of ability to hear high frequency sounds
Do men or women show a greater loss of hearing? When does this begin?
Men, around 55
Why are men more likely to have hearing loss?
b/c of environmental factors, such as working in highly noisy places
What are 2 changes in the ears related to middle age?
1. acuity decline
2. capillary thickening

Frequency and enthusiasm in sexual intercourse decreases with middle age.
False- frequency declines but enthusiasm increases
What are 2 changes sexually seen in men with middle age?
1. longer time needed to gain an erection
2. smaller volume of ejaculation
What are 2 physical sexual changes seen in women with middle age?
- thinning of vaginal walls
- vaginal entrance may be compressed
What is the female climacteric? What is the most notable sign of this stage in a woman's life?
the transition from the ability to have children to being unable to do so; marked by menopause and a reduction of the production of estrogen and progesterone
What are 5 signs/symptoms of menopause?
- hot flashes
- headaches
- dizziness
- joint aches
- heart irregularities
What are 5 changes women face regarding reproduction during middle age?
1. changes in cycle
2. change in cervical mucosa
3. peak in sexuality
4. menopause
5. dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

Women in lower social-economic statuses report a lower incidence of symptoms related to menopause.
False- they report a higher incidence, possibly related to more traditional roles
Men have a reduction in testosterone production as they age, however they are still able to have children up until what age?
often into their 80's
What is the most typical symptom of the male climacteric? What age does this begin?
prostate enlargement - begins around age 40 and effects 50%+ of men by 80

Middle age is typically a healthy period
Are men or women more likely to have sever, chronic, life-threatening illnesses (cancer, heart attacks, hypertension)?
Who has a higher incidence of short-term, non-threatening illness (men or women)?
Which personality type?

competitive, impatient, easily frustrated, high levels of hostility
Type A
Which personality type?

non-competitive, patient, low levels of aggression, low hostility
Type B
There is a significant relationship between type A personality and what health problem?
heart disease

Attitude has an effect on a person's immune system.
True- research on AIDS patients reflects this statement; many cancer survivors are described as having a "fighting" spirit, optimism, and close family ties

a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite
midlife crisis
What is empty nest syndrome? Are men or women more affected by this?
- a parent's feeling of unhappiness, worry, and depression brought about by their children leaving home
- women more likely to be affected

Empty nest syndrome is typically a short-term, temporary phenomenon.
What are 3 benefits of empty nests?
- spouses have more time for each other
- fewer distractions from spouses own interests
- sexuality improves
Are men or women more likely to face limitations when they move back home with their parents as young adults?
Women are more likely to have limitations placed on them (although men are statistically more likely to move back home)
Are moms or dads more likely to approve of adult children returning home?
What is the sandwich generation?
- couples or individuals in middle adulthood who must care for both their children and aging parents
What is job burnout?
- situation that occurs when highly trained professionals experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from their jobs
Job burnout most often occurs in what types of jobs?
human service type jobs
Job burnout is most likely to occur in what type of person?
- one who has idealism and high work incentive
Job burnout leads to what?
- cynicism
- indifference
- lack of concern with quality of work
What are 5 methods of preventing job burnout?
- realistic job appraisal
- job structure that includes at least some exposure to "The Big Picture"
- Peer and supervisor support
- appropriate levels of time off, continuing eduction, and alternative assignments
- ability to experience small victories

Unemployment in middle age has a greater impact than at other times
What psychological problems are seen with unemployment and middle age? (4)
- self-image and self-esteem issues
- insomnia
- depression
- suicide
What is the most common form of leisure for middle aged adults?
In middle age, physical exams should be done how often?
In middle age, pap screenings should be done how often?
In middle age, mammograms should be done how often?
In middle age, proctosigmoidoscopic and colonoscopic exams should be done how often?
every 3-5 years
In middle age, how often should a digital exam of the rectum with stool guaic testing be done?
What are 3 major ideas that should be relayed to the middle aged client?
- plan for anticipated changes in life
- recognize risk factors related to health
- focus on strengths rather than weaknesses
What is the most common cause of accidental death in the middle aged adult?
motor vehicle crashes
What are 2 changes that occur in middle age that can be attributed to accidental injuries?
- decreased reaction time
- decreased visual acuity
What is the second leading cause of death among those between 25-64?
What is the leading cause of death for the middle-aged adult in the US?
Coronary heart disease