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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. it includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products
the art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption
animal husbandry
an agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats
a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
capital-intensive agriculture
form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods--a process requiring very little human labor
commercial agricultural economy
all agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption
an agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter
the conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by human in order to sustain themselves
extensive agriculture
an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms
fertile crescent
area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the southeastern mediterranean coast (including iraq, syria, lebanon, and lurkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity
genetically modified foods
foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a lab for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency
green revolution
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops thru increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the world
hunting and gathering
the killing of wild animals and fish as wells as the gathering of fruits, nuts, roots, and other plants for sustenance
industrial revolution
the rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and mfg in england in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world
intensive cultivation
any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
labor-intensive agriculture
type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful
livestock ranching
an extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located on semi-arid climates like the american west
in agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines
mediterranean agriculture
an agricultural system practiced in the mideterranean-style climates of western europe, california, and portions of chile and australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations
a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals
planned agricultural economy
an agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the gov't controls both agricultural production and distribution
a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop
process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation thru irrigation. in arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil useless
shifting cultivation
the use of tropical forest clearings for corp production until their fertility is lost. plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites
slash-and-burn agriculture
system of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. the fire introduces nutrient into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time
specialty crops
crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export
subsistence agricultural economy
any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption
land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method
topsoil loss
loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost thru erosion. it is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains
the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer
urban sprawl
the process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land
von Thunen model
and agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less