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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
age-sex distribution
a model used in population geogrpahy that describes the ages and # of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
baby boom
a cohort of individuals born in the US b/w 1946 and 1964, which was just after WWII in a time of relative peace and prosperity. these conditions allowes for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility
baby bust
period of time during the 1960s and 70s when fertility rates in the US dropped as large #s of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competetive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. as such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contract to the baby boom
carrying capacity
the largest # of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support
chain migration
the migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding frieds or family members to an existing community
a population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit
cotton belt
them term by which the american south used to be know, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. the same area is now known as the new south or sun belt b/c people have migrated here from older cities in the industrial north for a better climate and new job opportunities
crude birth rate
# of live births per yr per 1000 ppl
crude death rate
# of per yr per 1000 ppl
demographic accounting equation
equation that summarizes the amt of growth of decline in a poulation within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
demographic transition model
a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates thru time
the study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics
dependency ratio
the ratio of the # of ppl who are either too young or old to provide for themselves to the # of ppl who must cupport them thru their own labor. this is usually expressed in the form n:100 there n=#of dependents
doubling time
time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
the process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person's country of origin
exponential growth
growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new ppl is added to a population each year. it is compound b/c the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population
forced migration
the migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will
generation X
a term coined by artist and author douglas coupland to describe ppl born in the US b/w 1965 and 1980. this post baby boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years
the process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there
infant mortality rate
the percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country
internal migration
the permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country
life expectancy
the avg age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, b/w genders, and b/w races
Thomas Malthus
author of essay on the principle of population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outspace food production
a long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another
natural increase rate
the difference b/w the # of births and # of deaths within a particular country
advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations
a value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support the area's current population
population density
a measurement of the # of persons per unit land area
population geography
a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population
population pyramid
a model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population
pull factors
attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities
push factors
incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil
people who leave their home b/c they are forced out, but not b/c they are being officially relocated or enslaved
rust belt
the northern industrial states of the US, including ohio, michigan, and pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the US and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate
sun belt
US region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since WWII
total fertility rate
the avg # of children born to a woman during her childbearing years
voluntary migration
movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area--the opposite of forced migration
zero population growth
proposal to end population growth thru a variety of official and nongov't family planning programs