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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
antibodies and cytokines
biochemicals produced by the 2 trillion cells that make up our immune system
self antigens
cell surface molecules that mark the body's cells.
foreign antigen
an antigen which is not of the body and elicits an immune response.
Blood Types
AB (universal recipient, can't donate)
0 (universal donor, cant recieve).
Rh+ : You have the rh blood type and therefore
Rh- : You don't have Rh

Combination of alleles of three geenes called: C, D, and E.

If a Rh+ man and a rh- negative woman have kid that is Rh+, then the second kid will be attacked by anibodies
the chemical which accumulates to attack fetus in case of 2nd rh+ baby with rh- mom
hydrops fetalis
the Rh+ and rh- disease problem thing that develops in babies
HUman Leukocyte Antigens
HLA: polymorphic, highly individual

HLA attaches to viruses or proteins and signals to rest of immune systen, in a process called ANTIGEN PROCESSING

causes some other diseases
Antigen Processing
When HLA attaches to viruses or bacteria to show to other immune system cells
antigen presenting cell
cells which identify foreighn cells
white blood cells that team up with macrophages to create the immune system on a microscopic level.

made in the bone marrow and migrate to lympth nodes, spleen an thymus gland, also circulate in blood and tissue fluid

two types of lympthocytes: B cells and T cells
B Cells
secrete antibody protiens in response to nonself molocules (foreign antigens)
T Cells
release sytokines that have a number of functions
Three basic characteristics of immune system:
diviserty: vanquishes mayn types of microscopic foes.

Specific: distinguishing the ells and molecules that cause disease from those that are harmlesss.

reemembers, responds faster to a subsequent encounter with with a foreighn antigen than it did the first time
primary immune response
the first assault
secondary immune response
second assult based on memory
HUmoral Immune Response
B cells secreting antibodies into the blood stream consitute the huimoral immune response.
B cell activation
antigen-presenting macrophage activates a T cell, which in turn contacts a B cell that has surface receptors that hjave bound the same tyoe of foreign antigen.

once activated T cels find a B cell they release cytokines that prompt the B cell to divide. the B cell gives rise to two cells:
plasma cells
are antibody factories, secreting up totwo thousand indentical antibodies per second at the heigh of their life span (a few days)
memory cels
remain dormant during the primary immune response, but respond to foreign antigen faster and weith more force the next time it appears
polyclonal antibody response
when plasma cells devrived from different B cells secrete different antibodies, each antibody type corresponding to a specific portion of the microbe.

significance : plasma cell diviserity is very important
heavy chains
longer polypepetides
light chains
other two polypeptides
constant reginos
the lower portion of each chain is an amino acid sequence that is very similar in all antiboduy molecules that even in different species.
variable regions
the amino acid sequence of the upper portions of each polupeptide chain
antigen binding sites
special ends of the antibody molecule that bind to antyigens because of the three-dimensional shapes of the tips of the variable regions.
the specific parts that actually bind the antigen to the antigen binding site
cellular immune response
when the cells themselves travel to where they are needed, unlike B cels, which secrete antibodies intro the bloodstream (T cells to this).
Heler T cells
recognize foreign antigens prsented on macrophages, stimulate B cellsto produce antibodies, secrete cytokines ,and activiate another type or T cell called a cytotoxic T ce;;
killer T cell
cytotoxic T cell created by Helper T cell

attack virally infected and cancerous cells by atytaching to them and releasing chemicals.
cytokines created by helped T cells:
interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor and coloney stimulating factors
cluster-of-differentiation antigens
enable T cells to regonize foreign antigens displayed on the macrophages.
T cell receptors
bind to foeign antigens. when a cytotoxic T cell encounters a nonself cell, a cancer cell, for exmaple, the T cell receptors draw the two cells into physical contact.
inherited immune deficiencies
mutations in genes that enconde cytokines or T cell receptors impair cellular immunity, which primarily targets viruses and cancer cells. Because T cekks actuvate the B cekks that nabyfactyre abtubiduesm abbirnak cekkykar unnybut cayses sine degree of abnomrmal humoal immunity.
sever combined immune deficiency
types of immune deficiency that affect both branches of the immune system, humoral and cellular.
david vetter:
no thymus gland, lived in a bubble
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
HIV first infects marcophages. enters macropages but doesn't kill them, instead it replicates ferociously, pumping millions of new viruses into the bloodstream

HIS is a retro virusl its genetic material is RNA. once inside, REVERSE TRANSCIPTASE cataluzes constuction of a DNA strand complementary to viral RNA.
HIV is very diverse, changing. only takes a few days to mutate.
attack "self", the bodies own cells. The signs and symptoms of this autoimmunity depend upon the cell types attacked. most people who suffer from autoimmune disorders are female.
events that could prompt an autoimmune response
perahps a virus, while replicating within a human cell, borrows protiens from the host cell's surface and incorporates them onto its own. When the immune system "learns" the surgace of the vierus to destroy it, it also learns to attack the human cells that normally bear the protein.
Another: when a nonself antigen coincidentally resembles a self antigen. THis may explqain juvenile diabetes. the protein of cow milk is a lot like pancreatic hormone insulin, and so they could have this autoimmmunity
In an allergic reaction, the offending substances, called allergens, activate IgE antibodies. These antibodies, in turn, bind to circulating cells called mast cells and cause them to explosivley release substances called alllergy mediators, which include hisamine and heparin.

Allergies are multifactorial, who dont just get them from your parents
cancer is actually a large collection of illnesses that have one trait in common: a loss of cell cycle control.

Cancer begins with a single abnormal cell that divides to produce others like itself. these cells may either grow into a masss called a cancerous or MALIGNANT TUMOR or travel in the bloodstream.
This probably occurs in everyone, but the immune system kills them.
Cancer is a consequence of disruption of the cell cycle.

in which telomerase is turned back on, telomeres are extended
chromosome tips, protect chromosomes from breaking. HUman telomeres consist of the DNA sequence TTAGGG repeated thouisands of times. The repeats are normally lost as a cell matures

Long telemores: ability to divide many times

Gametes are able to keep their telomerees long thanks to an enzmye called telmnomerase
the enzyme that allows telomeres to remain long. Telomerase is a complexz of RNA and protein. Telomoerase adds telomere material to gametes, keeping their cellular clocks from running out.
in normal, specialized cells, telomerase is turned off
Inherited versus sporadic cancer: three important factors
1. Cancer can develop only after several gens mutate

2. A gene may confer a cancer susceptibility that is only realized in the presence of an environmental trigger, such as esposure to cigarette smoke.

3. Cancer-causing mutations mauy be present in every cell of the body, or only in affected somatic cells
isolated/sporadic cancer
A cancer is isolated, or sporadic, if the causative mutation occurs only in cells of affected tissue. Such a somatic mutation might be a single, dominant mutation, or two recessive mutations
A germline, or inherited cancer susceptibility, is passed to future generations. A person inherits a susceptibility gene that is present in every cell. tyhis is called a CONSTITUTIONAL MUTATION, becauser it is part of the individual's genetic makeup.

some familial cancers are so likely to occur that they appear in Mendelian ratios.
Cancer cells
cancer cells can divide continuously if sufficient nutrients and space are available

Cancer cells divide faster than the cells which they arose from (but not faster than any cell, such as an embryo

Cancer is heritable because it is passed from parent cell to daughter cell.

A Cancer cell is also dedifferentiated, which means that it is less specialized than the normal cell type from which it arose. A skin cancer cell, for example, is rounder and softer than the flattened , scaly healthy skin cells abovie it in the epidermis.

instead of forming a layer, cancer cells roll up and call a tumor, and do not stop dividing once they crowd other cells

cancer cells have surface structurse that enablee them to squeeze into any space, a property called invasiveness. They anchor themselves to tissue boundaries, called basement membrances, where they secrete chemicals that cut paths through healthy tyissue. Unlike a benigh (noncancerous) tumor, an invasive malignant tumor grows irregularly, sending tentacles in all directions.

Evenrtually, unlpess treatment stops them, malignant cells reach the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels, which are conduits to other parts of the body.

Cancer cells may also secrete hormones that encourage their own growth.

ONce cancer cells move to a new body part, the disease has speard, or metastasied.