Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintined by adaptive responses the promote healthy survival
homeostasis
constitutes 42% of body weight. This is fluid within the cell
intracellular
Outside of cell. 1/3 of the body water, or 17% of the total weight.
extracellular
Swelling caused by excessive fluid in the body
edema
occurs when fluid collects in the tissue. Pressing a thumb or finger firmly against the tissue for a few seconds, a dent can be produced. The dent may persist for several minutes.
pitting edema
substances whose milecules dissociate or split into ions when placed in water
electrolyte
electrically charged particles
ion
positively charged ions
cation
negatively charged ions
anion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration
diffusion
movement of water bet. 2 compartments sep. by a membrane permeable to water but not to solute
osmosis
molecules move against the concentration gradient. External energy is required for this process
active transport
the force w/in a fluid compartment.
hydrostatic pressure
the amount of pressure required to stop the osmotic flow of water
oncotic pressure
distribution of body water
fluid spacing
Glucose transport into cell is an example of...
facilitated diffusion
How does sodium move out of the cell and potassium move into the cell?
active transport
determined by the concentration of solutes in a solution
osmotic pressure
the test typically performed to evaluate the concentration of plasma and urine
osmolarity
.....gradually decreases as the blood moves through the arteries until it is about 40mm HG at the arterial end of the capillary
hydrostatic pressure
The major colloied in the vascular system contributing to the total osmotic pressure is...
protein
plasma oncotic pressure is...
25 mm Hg
The proteins found in the interstitial space exert an oncotic pressure of...
1mm Hg
What causes them movement of fluid into the capillary?
plasma oncotic pressure and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
At the arterial end of the capillary, .....exceeds plasma oncotic pressure
capillary hydrostatic pressure
At the venous end of the capillary, the ....is lower than plasma oncotic presure and the fluid is drawn back into the capillry by...
cap. hydrostatic pressureis lower than plasma oncotic pressure/fluid is drawn back by oncotic pressure created by plasma proteins
Increasing the pressure at the venous end of the capillary does what?
inhibits fluid movement back into the capillary
What are some causes of increased venous pressure?
fluid overload, congestive heart failure, liver failure, obstruction of venous return to the heart, and venous insufficiency
What could happen w/ the administration of colloids, dextran, mannitol, or hypertonic solutions?
fluid being drawn into the plasma space
what is a therapeutic application of increasing hydrostatic pressure?
the wearing of ted hose
Cellular water pressure; responsible for keeping cells firm
turgor
a measure of the molecular tension or force applied across a bipolar membrane
osmolality
A solution having a low concentration of solute
hypotonic
Term applied to two solutions with equal solute concentrations
isotonic
A solution having a high concentration of solute
hypertonic
invisible vaporization from the lungs and skin and assists in regulating body temp.
insensible loss
potassium imbalance can cause
nausea
Describe the composition of the body fluid compartments
ICF has a high concentration of potassium, and small amounts of mag./Na. ECF:lots of NA, small K,CA,mag.
Excretion of urine, especially in excess
diuresis
a body fluid deficit or increase in plasma osmolality is sensed by...
osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
What gland stimulates thirst and ADH release?
hypothalamus
the amount of water lost to insesible water loss?
900 ml/day. This is increased by accelerated body metabolism (which is increased w/ increased body temp/excersise)
caused by fever or high environmental temp. May lead to large losses of water and electrolytes
sensible perspiration
what is the normal daily water intake/output?
bet. 2000 and 3000ml/day
Describe ECF anions
ECF anion:chloride, some bicarbonate,sulfate, phosphate anions
serum range for Na+
135-145 mEq/L
serum range for Na+
135-145 mEq/L
Serum range for K+
3.5-5.5 mEq/L
Serum range for K+
3.5-5.5 mEq/L
Serum range for Ca++
9-11 mg/dl
Serum range for Ca++
9-11 mg/dl
hypernatremia
high amounts of sodium (salt) in the blood.
hypernatremia
high amounts of sodium (salt) in the blood.
hyperkalemia
high amounts of potassium in the blood
hyperkalemia
high amounts of potassium in the blood
hypercalcemia
An excess of calcium in the blood
hypercalcemia
An excess of calcium in the blood
hypovolemia
A decreased amount of blood in the body
hypovolemia
A decreased amount of blood in the body
What is secreted by the adrenal cortex and promotes the reabsorption of Na and the excretion of K from the kidneys
aldosterone
What is secreted by the adrenal cortex and promotes the reabsorption of Na and the excretion of K from the kidneys
aldosterone
When ...is secreted it causes Na to be reabsorbed and water will be reabsorbed with the Na
aldosterone
When ...is secreted it causes Na to be reabsorbed and water will be reabsorbed with the Na
aldosterone
Causes of hypovolemia:
vomiting, diarrhea, fever, excessive blood loss, traumatic injuries, and burns
Causes of hypovolemia:
vomiting, diarrhea, fever, excessive blood loss, traumatic injuries, and burns
what group is at greatest risk for hypovolemia?
the elderly
what group is at greatest risk for hypovolemia?
the elderly
symptoms of hypovolemia?
low BP, low blood volume, decreased skin turgor, decreased urine output, and thirst
symptoms of hypovolemia?
low BP, low blood volume, decreased skin turgor, decreased urine output, and thirst