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51 Cards in this Set

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(Anabolism/Catabolism) is the breakdown of large macromolecules
Catabolism
(Anabolism/Catabolism) is the synthesis of large macromolecules
Anabolism
Whether the body stores or utilises energy is under the control of the __________ system
endocrine
What are the 2 concepts that drive the control of metabolism
1. Food intake is intermittent
2. Brain depends on glucose as a primary energy source
What are the 3 process that relies on the catabolism?
Muscle contraction
Transport
Secretion
What are the 3 process that relies on anabolism?
Tissue function
Growth repair
Storage molecules
The term for the amount of energy expended per unit time is known as...
the metabolic rate
List some factors that influence the body's metabolic rate
Muscular activity
Age
Gender
Body's surface area
Environmental temperature
Define basal metabolic rate
The rate of energy expenditure of a person who is awake lying down, physically and mentally relaxed, fasted for 12 hours and in a thermoneutral environment 20C
The BMR is the energy required only for the functioning of _____ _____
vital organs
The BMR can be determined by measuring the rate of _____ _________
oxygen consumption
What is the equation of metabolic rate (kJh-1)?
rate at which the individual is using up oxygen (lmin-1) x 60 (min)
What is used to measure the oxygen consumption of an individual?
spirometer
The energy equivalent of oxygen will vary according to the relative amounts of _____, _______, ________ being utilised at the time of metabolic rate
proteins, fat and carbohydrates
Define RQ
RQ is the ratio of CO2 produced by the lungs to the volume of oxygen absorbed from the lungs in 1min
What is the equation of RQ?
CO2 produced / O2 consumed
In a mixed diet what is the value of RQ?
0.85
What is the normal value of BMR?
20 - 25kilocals/kg
Glucose during the absorptive state (anabolic) is stored as what in the liver and muscle tissue?
glycogen
Glucose during the absorptive state (anabolic) is stored as what in the liver and adipose tissue?
Glycerol or triglycerides
Fatty acids is stored as what in the liver and adipose tissue
triglycerides
Amino acids is stored as what in the muscle and other cells?
proteins
_________ stimulates the uptake of glucose and amino acid
Insulin
When glucose in the muscle undergoes glycogenesis in muscle it is turned into ________
glycogen
What transports trigylcerides?
VLDL
What are the hormones affecting energy metabolism
Catecholamines
Thyroid hormones
Growth hormones
Male sex steriods
What are the 3 main storage macromolecules?
Triglycerides
Proteins
Glycogen
What is the term when most tissue turns into using solely fatty acids as an energy source?
Glucose sparing effect
What are the products if pyruvate undergoes glycolysis in the muscle?
lactate
alanine
The pancreas is only an endocrine organ. True or False?
False it is a mixed endocrine and exocrine gland
_____ is the exocrine part of the pancrease which release many digestive juices
Acini
What does the alpha cell in the islet of langerham secrete? (glucagon/insulin/somatostatin)
glucagon
What does the beta cell in the islet of langerham secrete? (glucagon/insulin/somatostatin)
insulin
What does the delta cell in the islet of langerham secrete? (glucagon/insulin/somatostatin)
somatostatin
which ultrastructure cleaves C-peptide from proinsulin?
golgi apparatus
Glucagon promotes (Catabolism/Anabolism)
Catabolism
Insulin promotes (Catabolism/Anabolism)
Anabolism
If insulin increases what occurs in most tissues in the body? (concerning glucose uptake, amino acid uptake, protein synthesis and protein breakdown)
Glucose uptake increases
Amino acid uptake increases
Protein synthesis increases
Protein breakdown decreases
If insulin increases what occurs in adipose tissue? (concerning fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis)
fatty acid and trigylceride synthesis increases
lipolysis increases
If the sympathetic activity and epinephrine secretion increases this (stimulates/inhibits) beta cell in the pancreas
inhibits
If insulin increases what occurs in liver and muscle? (concerning glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis?)
glycogen synthesis increases
glycogenolysis decreases
If insulin increases what occurs in liver? (concerning fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis and gluconeogenesis)
Fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis increases
gluconeogenesis decreases
If glucagon secretion increases what would occur in the adipose tissue? (concerning lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis)
lipolysis increases
triglyceride synthesis decreases
If glucagon secretion increases what would occur in the liver? (concerning glycogenolysis/glucogen synthesis/gluconeogenesis/ketone synthesis/ protein breakdown/ protein synthesis)
Glycogenolysis increases
Glucogen synthesis decreases
Gluconeogenesis increases
Ketone synthesis increases
Protein breakdown increases
Protein synthesis decreases
What is the blood glucose at fasting levels?
70-140mgdl-1
What is the blood glucose of someone who has hyperglycaemia?
more than 140mgdl-1
What is the blood glucose of someone who has hypoglycaemia?
less than 60mgdl-1
The adrenal corticosteroid (promotes/inhibits) glycogen production
promotes
What is the role of growth hormone in the plasma glucose regulation
Anti-insulin glucose sparing agent
What is the role of catecholamine in the plasma glucose regulation
when levels fall below 4mmol-1 it can mobilise glucose for use by the brain
What is the role of thyroid hormones in the plasma glucose regulation
enhance glucose metabolism and ensures glucose reserves are mobilised