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116 Cards in this Set

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What years are middle childhood?
How much weight and height do middle childhood children add on per year?
5 pounds and 2-3 inches
Do girls or boys have a more dramatic growth sprout? and how much earlier?
Girls, 2 years earlier than boys
Which portion of the body grows faster (lower or upper)?
What continues to be a powerful predictor of ill health during the school years?
US families often lack health insurance and many children dont have access to a doctor.
If this persists from infancy or early childhood into the school years, it usually leads to permanent physical and mental damage
A greater than 20% increase over healthy weight, based on body mass index (BMI)
A ratio of weight to height with body fat. If above 85th percentile for a child's age and sex is considered overweight, if over the 95th percentile equals obese
What percent of US children and adolescents are overweight? Obese?
Accounts for only a tendency to gain weight.
What are these?
Overweight parents, low SES families, parents who overfeed, overly controlling, low physical activity, TV, and not eating at home
Causes of obesity
How much percent of affected children become overweight adults?
What are the life long health risks for obesity?
high blood pressure and cholesterol, respiratory problems, diabetes, liver and gall bladder diseases, sleep and digestive disorders, cancer, and early death
What type of psychological, emotional, and social problems are there for obese children?
Stereotyping, Social isolation, behavior problems, achievement problems, defiance, aggression, and depression
What is the most effective intervention for childhood obesity?
Family based intervention- because obesity is often a family disorder
Why are children at a somewhat higher rate to experience illness during the first 2 years of elementary school?
Because of exposure to sick children and an immune system that is still developing
What percent of American children have chronic diseases and conditions (including physical and disabilities)?
What is the most common form of illness? Accounting for about 1/3 of childhood chronic illness and the most frequent cause of school absence?
Illness where the bronchial tubes (passages that connect throat and lungs) are highly sensitive. In response to a variety of stimuli (cold weather, infection, allergies, exercise) they fill with mucus and contract. Leads to coughing, wheezing, and serious breathing difficulties.
Boys, African Am children, and children who were born underweight, parents smoke, or children who live in poverty are at greatest risk for what?
What percent of American youngsters have more severe chronic illnesses?
What are these?
Sickle cell anemia, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and AIDS
Severe chronic illnesses
What percent of children have incidents of asthma?
Stage that extends from about 7-11 years.
Marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized than it was earlier.
Concrete operational stage
Mental actions that obey logical rules
The focus of several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather than centering on just one
The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
When is reversibility achieved?
Middle childhood
What are the 4 points in Piaget's Concrete Operational Thought Stage?
Conservation, classification, seriation, and spatioal reasoning
What is very common in middle childhood?
The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight is known as what?
Ex: Placing sticks in order of longest to shortest
Seriating mentally.
Internally ordering objects
Well-known problem=Piaget showed children pairings of sticks of different colors.Stick a longer than b and b longer than c. So a must be longer than c. This requires children to integrate 3 relations at once
Transitive inference
Mental representations of familiar large scale spaces, such as neighborhood or school
Cognitive maps
Around what age do maps become better organized, showing landmarks along an organized route of travel. And at this age, children become able to give clear, well organized instructions for getting from one place to another by using mental walk strategy
8-10 years old
A strategy where children imagine another person's movements along a route
Mental walk strategy
The proportional relation between a space and its representation on a map
At what age do children grasp the notion of scale?
What is the one important limitation of concrete operational thought?
Children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information they can perceive directly.
How do school age children master concrete operational tasks?
step by step, not all at once
ex: they usually grasp conservation of number first, then length, liquid, mass, and then weight
Gradual mastery of logical concepts
Continuum of acquisition
What are the 2 limitations of concrete operational thought?
Operations work best with concrete info, and continuum of acquisition
Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously, rather they are heavily influenced by what 3 conditions?
Training, context, and cultural
Networks of concepts and relations that permit children to think more effectively about a wide range of situations
Central conceptual structures
Case, a researcher, proposed that with practice, cognitive schemes demand that less attention and become more automatic, which frees up space where?
Working memory
What kind of theorists argue that the development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of gains in information processing speed rather than a sudden shift to a new stage?
Neo- Piagetian theorists.
Perspective that examines separate aspects of thinking.
Information processing perspective
Researchers believe that brain development contributes to changes in information processing that facilitate diverse aspects of thinking. what are these changes?
Increase in information processing speed and capacity and gains in inhibition
assesses the basic capacity of working memory.
Improves from 5 digits at age 7 to 7 digits at age 12.
Digit span
At what age does the time needed to process information on a wide variety of cognitive tasks decline?
The ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli
Why do researchers say middle childhood shows an increase in information processing speed and capacity?
There is a biologically based gain in speed of thinking, due to myelination and synaptic pruning in the brain
Why do researchers say middle childhood shows gain in inhibition?
The frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex develop further
In middle childhood, what becomes more selective, adaptable, and planful?
Deliberate mental activities we use to store and retain information
Memory strategies
Repeating the information to oneself
When do memory strategies usually first appear?
In the early school years
Grouping related items together
The more memory strategies children apply simultaneously and consistently, what happens?
The better they remember
Creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
Organization and elaboration combine items into what? They permit children to hold onto much more info and to retrieve it easily by thinking of other items associated with it
Meaningful chunks
Disorder which involves inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social problems.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
What percent of school ages children have ADHD?
What are some associated problems related to ADHD?
Inattentive, Impulsivity, Excessive motor activity, and social and academic problems
These are all ways of treating what?
Medication, but it may have to be paired with something else and family intervention
Set of ideas about mental activities, also known as metacognition
Theory of mind
What theory views the mind as active and controllable?
Theory of mind
At first speaking out loud, and then silently to themselves. "hearing themselves think" detects many aspects of mental life
Private speech
The process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
Cognitive self- regulation
Confidence in their own ability, supports future self regulation
Academic self- efficacy
A way to teach reading that parallels natural language learning. From the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form- stories, poems, letters- so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language
Whole- language approach
A way to teach reading where children should first be coached on phonics. Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material.
Phonics approach
The basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds
Phonological awareness, information processing speed, and practice contribute to what?
Reading skills
Conceptual understanding of how numbers work together
Number sense
At what age does IQ (general knowledge) become more stable than it was at earlier ages. Correlates moderately well with academic achievement.
Intelligence tests that a given from time to time in classrooms. They allow testing to be done on large quantity of people, do not require training an administer, useful for instruction planning, and they identify students who need individual testing
Group administered tests
Intelligence tests which require extensive training and experience to give well. These will identify children who are highly intelligent and children with learning problems
Individual administered tests
Intelligence test for individuals from age 2 to adulthood. It assesses general intelligence and five intellectual factors, each of which includes a verbal and nonverbal mode.
The Stanford- Binet Intelligence scales
Intelligence tests for 6-16 year olds. It measures general intelligence and 4 broad factors : verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
More 'culturally' fair
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)
Investigators that look for relationships between aspects (or components) of information processing and children's intelligence test scores. A test
Componential analysis
What is the major downfall of the componential approach?
It regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child
Identifies 3 broad, interacting intelligences: 1. analytical intelligence 2. creative intelligence and 3. practical intelligence.
Intelligence behavior involves balancing all 3 intelligences to achieve success in life according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community
Triarchic theory of successful intelligence
Information processing skills;
The info processing components that underlie all intelligent acts: applying strategies, acquiring task relevant and metacognitive knowledge, and engaging in self- regulation
Analytical intelligence
The capacity to solve novel problems.
More skillful than others when faced with novelty
Creative intelligence
Application of intellectual skills in everyday situations. Goal orientated activity aimed at adapting to, shaping, or selecting environments
Practical intelligence
Gardner's theory defines intelligence in terms of distict sets of processing operations that permit the individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence, Gardner proposes at least 8 independent intelligences
Theory of multiple intelligences
Linguistic (sensitivity to sounds, meanings of words and functions of lang), logico mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal are all examples of what?
Gardner's multiple intelligences
Ability to detect and respond appropriately to moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others
Ability to discriminate complex inner feelings and to use them to guide one's own behavior, knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences
Heredity estimates are obtained from what?
Kinship studies
Tests that compare family members
Kinship studies
The most powerful evidence on the heritability of IQ involves what?
Identical twin studies
When a test sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had equal opportunities to learn, or if the testing situation impairs the performance of some groups but not others
Test bias
With increasing education, parents establish this, like that of classrooms and tests.
The parent directs each child to carry out an aspect of the task, the child works independently
Hierarchical style of communication
The fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype, can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
Stereotype threat
Ethnic differences are more cultural than what?
An innovation consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support
Dynamic assessment
These families with children show 'real questions' which don't have a right answer and develop complex verbal skills, and have a collaborative task style
Low SES and minorities
Where the parent and child work together in a coordinated way, each focused on the same aspect of the problem
Collaborative style of communication
There are 2 types of of philosophical approaches. What are they?
Traditional classroom vs constructivist classroom
Classroom where the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making. Students are relatively passive- listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks. Their progress is evaluated by how well they keep pace with a uniform set of standards for their grade
Traditional classroom
A classroom where it encourages students in construct their own knowledge. Reveals richly equipped learning center, small groups and individuals solving self chosen problems, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs. Students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior development
Constructivist classroom
A classroom where children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children acquire knowledge and strategies from working together, they become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development
Social-constructivist classrooms
Where small groups of classmates work towards common goals
Cooperative learning
When older or more expert students assist younger or less expert students, both benefit in what?
Achievement and self esteem
Class size, physical setting, curriculum, interaction between teacher and children, evaluation of progress, and relationship with parents are all signs of what?
High quality education in elementary school
What do too many US teachers emphasize?
Repetitive drills over higher level thinking
Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them. Greater impact on low achievers
Educational self-fulfilling prophecies
Classroom where students with learning difficulties are placed in regular classrooms for all or part of the school day, a practice designed to prepare them for participation in society and to combat prejudices against individuals with disabilities
Inclusive classrooms
5-10% of school age children have.
Great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. As a result, their achievement is considerably behind what would be expected on the basis of the IQ
Learning disability
Children who display exceptional intellectual strengths.
High IQ
The ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate- something others have not thought of that is useful in some way
The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem
Divergent thinking
Involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests
Convergent thinking
Outstanding performance in a specific field
What type of schools show more emphasis on effort (more hrs helping children with homework),cultural valuing of academic achievement, high quality education for all, and more time devoted to instruction (these schools have 50 more days than others)
Asian schools