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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
union of sperm and ovum fuse to produce a zygote, also called conception
one-celled organism resulting from fertilization
The zygote ________ itself again and again to become a baby
Dizygotic Twins
(two egg) twins conceived by the union of 2 different ova (or a single ovum that has split) with 2 sperm cells (also called fraternal twins)
Monozygotic Twins
(one egg) twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization, also called identical twins
Identical twins look alike but are not alike in _________.
chracteristic disposition, or style of approaching and reacting to situations
Deoxyribonucleic acid- chemical that carries inherited instructions for the formation and function of body cells.
Genetic Code
Sequence of base pairs within DNA which determine genetic characteristics
What are the bases within DNA and how are they paired?
Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Cytosine(C), Guanine(G), A pairs with T, and C pairs with G
Coils of DNA that carry genes within the nucleus
small segments of DNA located in definite positions on particular chromosomes
Human Genome
complete sequence or mapping of genes in the human body and their location
What parent determine's sex?
the father's sperm
the 22 pairs of choromosomes in humans that are not related to sexual expression (gender)
Sex Chromosomes
the pair of chromosomes in humans that determines sex
Which sex does the following chromosome pair identify:
Which sex does the following chromosome pair identify:
Paired genes (alike or different) that affect a trait
possessing 2 identical alleles for a trait
possessing different alleles for a trait
dominant inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which, when a child recieves contradictory alleles, resulting in expression of a dominant trait
Recessive Inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which a childe recieves identical recessive alleles resulting in the expression of a non-dominant (recessive) trait.
Polygenic inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes affect a complex trait
Multifactorial Transmission
combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce certain complex traits
observable characteristics of a person
genetic makeup of person containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics
permanent alterations in genes or chromosomes that may or may not produce harmful characteristics
incomplete dominance
partial expression of a trait
sex linked inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which certain characteristics carried on the x chromosome inherited from the mother are transmitted differently to her male and female offspring
genome imprinting
some genes seem to be temorarily imprinted, or chemically altered either in the mother or the father. The genes when transmitted to offspring have different effects that do counterpart genes from the other parent
Down Syndrome
chromosomal abnormality disorder chracterized by moderate to severe mental retardation and by such physical sighns as downard sloping skin fold at the inner corners of the eyes
Genetic Counseling
clinical service that advises couples of their probable risk of having children with hereditary defects
behavioral genetics
quantitative study of relative heredity and environmental influences
statistical estimate of conrtribution of herediy to individual diferences in a specific trait with a given population
mental disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; symptoms include hallucinations and delusions
pervasive developmental disorder of the brain, characterized by lack of normal social interaction, impaired communication and imagination, and a highly restricted range of abilities and interests
What are the three stages of prenatal development?
Germinal, Embryonic, Fetal
Germinal Stage
First 2-3 weeks of prenatal development characterized by rapid cell division, increasing complexity and differentiation, and implanation in the wall of the uterus
Embryonic Stage
second stage of gestation (2-8 wks). Characterized by rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs
spontaneous abortion
natural expulsion fromt he uterus of a conceptus that cannot survive outside the womb (miscarriage)
fetal stage
final stage of gestation (from 8wks to birth) characterized by increased detail of body parts and greatly enlarged body size
ultra sound
prenatal medical procedure using high-frequency sound waves to detect the outline of a fetus and its movements so as to determine whether a pregnancy is progressing normally.
capable of causing birth defects
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
combination of mental, motoer and developmental abnormalities affecting the offspring of some women who drink heavily during pregnancy
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS- viral disease that undermines effective functioning of the immune system
When do the 9 most critical months of a person's life span occur and why are thy considered to be the most critical?
the prenatal period because it is when the most change and growth occurs to a human, also exposing a human to the most risk
Prenatal development is categorized not by age, but by __________.
At conception what is so remarkable that is created?
an individual genetic constitution
Are Genetics a form of nurture or nature?
Who planted pea plants and theorized the idea of genes?
Gregor Mendel
Who discovered the double helix of DNA, confirming Mendels gene theory? (2 ppl)
Watson and Crick
Humans have _________ pairs of chromosomes
a photograph that shows the chromosomes when they are separated and aligned for cell division
the structure of the chromosome
What constitutes a premature birth?
a child birn earlier than 37 weeks
Protective factors enhance _________ when there are more _______ factores than average

licit drugs
prescription/physician recomended drugs
illicit drugs
street drugs, illegal
What is the best drug to take during pregnancy?
None at all