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38 Cards in this Set

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lifespan development-field of
study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the entire life span.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY-UNCONSCIOUS forces act to determine personality and behavior.
1)id-unconscious, pleasure principle.
2)ego-rational and reasonable.
Reality principle.
3)superego-person's conscious,
right and wrong.
lifespan takes a scientific approach. Lifespan development focuses on human development.
PSYCOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT-Erickson-changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as members of society.
physical development-emphasizes how brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities, needs for food, drink, and sleep affect behavior.
BEHAVORIAL PERSPECTIVE-observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
cognitive development-emphasizes intellectual abilities, including learning,
memory, problem solving, and intelligence.
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION-promoting the frquency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
personality development-emphasizes enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another.
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY-learning observed the behavior of another person, called a model.
social development-how interactions with others and social relationships grow and change over time.
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE-Piaget-
focuses on the processes that
allow people to know, understand and think about the
world.
Biological approach-different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals.
1)microsystem-immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives. Homes, friends, teachers.
2)mesosystem-provides connections between the various aspects of the microsystem. Children to parents, students to teachers.
3)exosystem-represents broader
influences-social institutions
such as local government,community.
4)macrosystem-larger cultural influences on an individual. Attitudes and ideologies of the culture.
5)chronosystem- underlies each of the previous systems. Involves the way the passage of time including
historical events and more gradual changes.
INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROCHES-identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information.
individualism-emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness,
freedom, and the worth of the individual.
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY- emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
collectivism-well-being of the group is more important
than that if the individual.
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE-people
have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.
COHORT-group of people born at
around the same timein the same place. Similiat characteristics.
COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE APPROACHES- examines cognitive development through
the lens of brain processes.
continuous change-change is gradual. Achievements at one level build on previous level.
discontinous change-occurs in
steps. Behavior and processes
are qualitatively different at different stages.
EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE- seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Critical periods-certai enviromental stimuli are necessary for normal development.
SENSITIVE PERIODS-people are
susceptible to certain enviromental stimuli, but consequences of absent stimuli are reversible.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD-process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection
of data.
LIFESPAN APPROACH-emphasize growth and change throughout life relatedness of different periods.
FOCUS ON PARTICULAR PERIODS-
infancy and adolescence emphasized by early developmentalists as most important periods.
HYPOTHESIS-prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested.
NATURE(genetic factors)
discovering inherited genetic traits and abilities.
NURTURE(enviromental factors)
enviromental influences that affect a person's development.
CORRELATIONAL REASEARCH- seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists.
THEORIES-broad, organized explanations and predictions
concerning phenomena of interest.
EXPERIMENTAL REASEARCH-designed to discover casual relationship between various factors.
lifespan development-field of
study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the entire life span.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY-UNCONSCIOUS forces act to determine personality and behavior.
1)id-unconscious, pleasure principle.
2)ego-rational and reasonable.
Reality principle.
3)superego-person's conscious,
right and wrong.
lifespan takes a scientific approach. Lifespan development focuses on human development.
PSYCOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT-Erickson-changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as members of society.
physical development-emphasizes how brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities, needs for food, drink, and sleep affect behavior.
BEHAVORIAL PERSPECTIVE-observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
cognitive development-emphasizes intellectual abilities, including learning,
memory, problem solving, and intelligence.
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION-promoting the frquency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
personality development-emphasizes enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another.
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY-learning observed the behavior of another person, called a model.
social development-how interactions with others and social relationships grow and change over time.
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE-Piaget-
focuses on the processes that
allow people to know, understand and think about the
world.
Biological approach-different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals.
1)microsystem-immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives. Homes, friends, teachers.
2)mesosystem-provides connections between the various aspects of the microsystem. Children to parents, students to teachers.
3)exosystem-represents broader
influences-social institutions
such as local government,community.
4)macrosystem-larger cultural influences on an individual. Attitudes and ideologies of the culture.
5)chronosystem- underlies each of the previous systems. Involves the way the passage of time including
historical events and more gradual changes.
INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROCHES-identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information.
individualism-emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness,
freedom, and the worth of the individual.
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY- emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
collectivism-well-being of the group is more important
than that if the individual.
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE-people
have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.
COHORT-group of people born at
around the same timein the same place. Similiat characteristics.
COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE APPROACHES- examines cognitive development through
the lens of brain processes.
continuous change-change is gradual. Achievements at one level build on previous level.
discontinous change-occurs in
steps. Behavior and processes
are qualitatively different at different stages.
EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE- seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Critical periods-certai enviromental stimuli are necessary for normal development.
SENSITIVE PERIODS-people are
susceptible to certain enviromental stimuli, but consequences of absent stimuli are reversible.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD-process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection
of data.
LIFESPAN APPROACH-emphasize growth and change throughout life relatedness of different periods.
FOCUS ON PARTICULAR PERIODS-
infancy and adolescence emphasized by early developmentalists as most important periods.
HYPOTHESIS-prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested.
NATURE(genetic factors)
discovering inherited genetic traits and abilities.
NURTURE(enviromental factors)
enviromental influences that affect a person's development.
CORRELATIONAL REASEARCH- seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists.
THEORIES-broad, organized explanations and predictions
concerning phenomena of interest.
EXPERIMENTAL REASEARCH-designed to discover casual relationship between various factors.
LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH-a study
is measured as they age.
MONOZYGOTIC TWINS-twins who are identically
CROSS_SECTIONAL RESEARCH-people of different ages are
compared at the same point in time.
DIZYGOTIC twins-twins who are produced when two seperate ova are fertilized bytwo seperate sperm at the same time
ETHICS AND RESEARCH-
1)protect participants from harm
2)informed consent of participants
3)limits on the use of deception
4)maintain privacy.
GENOTYPE-underlying combination of genetic material present(not outwardly visible) in an organism.
THEORIES-broad explanations of facts or phenomena, based on systematic integration of prior findings and therories.
PHENOTYPE-obseveable trait
HYPOTHESIS-theory-based predictions that can be tested.
POLYGENIC INHERITANCE-inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD-process of posing and answering questions systematically
BEHAVIORALGENETICS-study of effects of behavior and psycological characteristics.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH-to determine if two factors are associated.
DOWN SYNDROME-presence of extra chromosome on the 21st pair.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-discover
cause-effect relationship.
GENETIC COUNSR