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47 Cards in this Set

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1.chephalocaudal patter
2.proximal patter
3. neuron
4. lateralization
1.early growth starts at head and and finished at bottom
2.growth starts at center toward limbs
3. nerve cells that process info.
4. specialized function in the cerebral ( frontal-move+think, occipital-vision, temperal-hearing, pariental-info+sence)
1.sudden infant death syndrom (sids)
2.Marasmus
3.Kwashiorkor
1. when infant stops breathing at night and dies with out cause.
2. infant tissue wasting away in first year caused by severe nutrition deficiency
3.protein deficiency caused abs and feet to swell with water b/w ages 1-3
2. sucking reflex
3.rooting reflex
4.moro reflex
5. grasping reflex
6.babinski reflex
7. tonic neck
2.allows baby to get nutrition before it makes the conection that nipple = food
3.cheek is stoked turn head that way to suck
4.neonatal startle response for when it gets scared ... arches back, head back and flings out arms and legs and brings close to body. falling responce?
5.closed palm when touched to grip
6. fans out toes twist foot
7. fencer pose
1. dyanamic system theory
2. gross motor skills
3.fine motor skills
1.development of motor skills for percieving and acting
2.large muscles ]
3. using fingers "sticky mittens"
1.sensation
2.perception
3. ecological view
4 affordance
1.from eyes ears nose tongue skin
2.interpretation of what is senced
3.directly percieve info around us to increase adaption
4. object may be utalized several ways pot=cook=drum
1.visual preferance method
2. habituaion
3. dishabituation
1.used to determin how long infants look at ceratin stimuli
2.decreased responsiveness
3. recovery from a (2) resposed after change stimuli
1.size constancy
2.shape constancy
3.intermodel perception
1. can tell objects close and far by how big or small it is babys have it but not mature
2. orientation changes but object is the same babies have it
3. integrate info from 2 or more senced hearing and sight
1. schemes
2.organization
3.equilibration
4. sensorimotor stage
1. Piagets theory actions that organize knowledge.
2. Piagets group into catagories for smoother cognitive system
3. when a kid runs into conflict and try and balance out and shift to next stage because of it
4. Piagets stage birth to 2 understanding of the world by hearing and seeing
Piagets sensorimotor development
1. simple reflex
2.1st habits and prime circular rxt.
3. second circular rxt.
4.cordination of second circ rxt.
5. tertiary circular rxt, curiosity
6.internalization of schemes
1.0-1 reflexes like rooting sucking grasping to coordinate sensation
2.1-4 months adapt reflexes to more refined to what they are doing. done by chance then adapted
3. 4-8, object oriented infant coos to keep person near then when person leavs coos again. repeats action to bring pleasurable result
4. 8-12,coordinated vision and touch manipulated stick to bring toy closer
5. 12-18, action reaction
6. 18-24, copys others, forms symbolic and mental representations
1.object permenance
2.AB error
3. attention
4. deferred imitation
1.understanding an object is there when they cant see it
2. selects familiar place rather then known place.."pick a hand"
3. focus of mental resourses
4. imitaion that occurs in infants after hours or days
1. memory
2. imlicit memory
3. explicit memory
1. cognitive development pertaining to info retained over time
2. routine skills
3. consciou memory of facts and experiences
1. developmental quotient (Gesell)
2. bayley scaleof infant development
1. determin normal babies from abnormal: with motor lang.,adaptive,personal social
2.asses infant development with mental+motor scale and behavior profile.
1. language
2. infinite generativity
3. phonology
4. morphology
5. sytax
6. semantics
7. pragmatics
1. communication
2. usind endless numners of sentenced and words, rules
3.the sound system of lang. (pot in spot or spr in spring)
4. meanings with word formation (help+ er)
5. the ways words are put together in a sentence
6. the grouping of similar words like (lemon>citris>fruit) that could be used in a sentence
7.appropraite use of language
1. telegraphic speech
2. aphasia
3.Broca's area
4.Wernick's area
5.language acquisition
6. child directed speech
1. short presice words like "see dog"
2.loss of lang. b/c of brain damage
3.brains left frontal lobe next to part for speech
4. left brain lang. comprehension
5.Chomsky's term for the prewired lang sence in humans.
6. higher pitch with simple words and sentenses
1.primary emotions
2.self-conscience emotions
1. in humans and animals: surprise,joy, anger, sadness,fear, disgust
2. emotions that require cognition and conscience:
pride, shame, guilt, empathy
1. basic cry
2.anger cry
3. pain cry
4. refelx smile
5.social smile
1. rhythmic breif silence higher pitch inspiratory whistle
2. more excess air
3.sudden loud cry with silence
4. sleep smile respoce
5. external stimulis smile
1.stranger anxiety
2.separation anxiety
3.social referencing
1.fear of strangers
2. distressed rxt when caregiver leaves
3. reading emotional cues to help determine how to act
1.temperment
2. easy child
3.difficult child
4.slow to warm up child
1.behaivior style and way of responding
2.positive mood, had regular routine, adapts well
3.negative, crys,irregular routine, slow to accept
4.low activity level little negative, low intesity of mood
1. goodness of fit
2. strange situaion
3.securely attachched baby
4. insecure avoidant babies
5. insecure resistant babies
6. insecure disorganized babies.
1. the match of temperment and envirnment it needs to cope in
2.observational measure to study baby attachment
3. use care giver as base to explor envirn
4. avoid caregiver
5. cling then push away
6. disoriented
1. reciprocal socialization
2. scaffolding
3. basal metabolic
1.children socialize parents and parents socialize children
2. parents teach kids turn taking like "pikaboo" or patti cake"
3. minimum amount of energy a person uses at rest
Piagets Preoperational stage
2. operation
3. symbolic function substages
2.Piaget theory, mental actions like adding in head instead of counting fingers
3. Preoperational thought- represent an object that is not there
Piaget preop cont'd
1. egocentrism
2. animism
3. intuitive thought 2nd substage
4. centration
5. conservation
1. can only see from kids view not anyone elses
2. believe objects are liflike
3. primitive reasoning "why"
4. focus attention on one thing
5. awareness that changing shape does not change its mass "water in different containore"
Vygotsky theory
1.Zone of proximal development
2. social constructivist approach
1.can master ideas with help "water containors"
2. learning through social interactions edu is very important with language
1. short term memory
2. child- centered kindergarten
3.montessori appoach
4. developmentally appropriate practice.
1. 30 seconds with out rehersal
2. edu that considers physical cognitive and social learnibg
3. free and spontanious learning move through activities as desired
4. age appropriate.. .hands on
1. project head start
1. a gov programed to teach poor kids skills for school success
1.self understaning
2. moral development
3. heteronomous marality
4.autonomous morality
5.immanent justics
1. the child cognitive representaion of self
2. development that involves feelings, actions, about what people should do.
3.Piagets theory ,stg 1, 4-7, rules are unchangeable uncontrolled by people.
4. stg 2, 10yrs on , rules are created by people, consideration for action not always right and wrong.
5.oocept that punishment immediate.
1. gender identity
2.gender role
1. sence of being male of female at 3 years old
2. set expectations
1. social role theory
2. psychoanalytic theory of gender
3. social cognitive theory of gender
1. gender differences come from contrasting roles of men and women
2. frauds theory, attracted to oppisite sex parent so becomes like the same sex parent.
3. develops through observation and immitation and rewards and punishments of gender related behavior
1. cognitive development theory of gender
2. gender schema theory
1. once they realize there gender they begin gendert typing
2.internam motivation to conform to gender based stereotypes
1.Authoritarian parenting
2. authoritative parenting
3. neglectful parenting
4. indulgent parenting
1. restrictive, follow directions, work no play, firm limits, no vermal exchange lead to incompetance
2.encourage children to be independent but still limits controls
3.uninvolved child lacks self control + incompetance
4. too involved in childs life with few controls on them cause no self control and incompetance.
1.unoccupied play
2.solitary play
3.onlooker play
4.parallel play
5.associative play
6.cooperative play
1. not active just stands or random movemonts
2. plays independently
3. child watches others play
4. play seperate but doing the same thing
5. unorganized social play
6. organized social play
7.sensorimotor play
8. practice play
9.pretense/symnbolic play
10. social play
11.constructive play
12. games
7. infant behavior and movement for fun learn cause and effect
8.repatition of an action to learn different ways
9. imagines things in envirnment to be different like a block being a phone
10. interaction with peers
11. combines sensorimotor, repitition, and symbolic play usually in a self regulated creation .
12. activities for pleasure with rules and compitition
1. learning disability
2. dyslexia
3. ADHD
1. min IQ, difficulty in certain subject, 2nd language, defects
2. can't read or spell
3. inattention, hyperactive, impulsivity
1. individual edu plan
2.least restrictive envirn
3. inclusion
1. geared to fixing the disability, individual, edu benefits
2. as close as possible to regular kids
3. educating a child in Special ED need full time in regular class
1. seriation
2. transitivity
1. piaget reason theory,putting things in size order some kids cant and make groups of similar lenghts
2. logically combine relations that are not directly shown kids can not do this
1. neo- piagetians
2. long term memory
3.strategies
4. elaboration
5. fuzzy trace theory
1. developers elaborate on piagets theories
2. permanent memory huge
3. cognitive plans that require work
4. extending information
5. 2 types, verbatum and gist
1. critiacal thinking
2. creative thinking
3. convergent thinking
4. divergent thinking
5. brainstorm
6. metacognition
1.thinking refelctivly and evaluate evedence
2. think in unusual ways
3. thinking that produces only one correct answer
4. many answers
5. think of creative ideas in a group
6. knowin about knowing
1. intellegence
2. individual differences
3. mental age
4. Inteligence quotient( IQ)
5. normal distribution
1. problem solving skills and adapt to everyday life
2. stable and consistant ways people are diff
3. BINET's measure of indiv level of mental development compared with others
4. mental age/ actual age X 100
5. a bell curve
1. Triarchic theory of intelligence
2. heritability
3. steriotype threat
4. culture fair test
1. STERNBERG's theory, of analytical, creative, and practical intelligences
2. variation in population that is atributed to genes
3. behavioral anxiety in fear that actions will confirm a negative steriotype about one's group
4. intelliegence test free of bias
1. mental retardation
2. organic retardation
3. cultural- familial retardation
4. gifted
1. IQ below 70 difficult adapting to life
2.due to physical damage by genetic disorder or brain damage
3. no evidence but IQ is b/w 50 and 70
4.IQ above 130 or superior talent
1. whole language approach
2. basic skills phonics approach
1. should parallel childs natural learning
2. teach phonics and rules written in symbol
1. self-esteem
2. self-concept
1. self worth or image
2. evaluation of self
KOHLBERG's theory of moral development
1. Preconventional reasoning
2. heteronomous morality
3.individualism, instramental purpose, and exchange
4. conventional reasoning
1.powered by external rewards and punishment
2. preconvential, moral thinking is tied to punishment
3. pursue own interests allows others to do the same
4. intermediate, abide by parents or the law
5. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
6. social system morality
7.postconventional reasoning
8. social contract or utility and individual tights
9. universal ethical principles
5. value caring, trust, loyalty
6.understanding social order, law, justice, and duty
7. recognizes alternative moral
courses, explores options and decides on personal moral code
8. develope moral standards based on universal human rights.
1.justice perspective
2.care perspective
3.social conventional reasoning
4. altruism
1. moral perspective, focused on
rights of indiv and make own moral decisions
2. Carol Gilligan, views people and their relationship with others .
3. social consensus and convention
4. unselfish interest in helping others
1.androgyny
2.direct intrstruction approach
1. presence of positive gender characteristics in one person
2. teacher based, kids become passive learners and not critical thinkers
1. popular children
2. average children
3. neglected children
4. rejected children
5.controversial children
1.nominated as best friends the most and rarely disliked
2. average number of likes and dislikes
3. rare likes but not disliked
4. rare likes more dislikes
5. liked stongly and disliked stongly and even amount of times.