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36 Cards in this Set

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piaget proposed four major stages in which children and adolescents master
the use of symbols and abstract reasoning
Piagets stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor (birth-2yrs)
pre-operational (2-7 yrs)
concrete operational (7-11 yrs)
formal operational (11)
Sensorimotor characterisitics
Differentiates self from objects
Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally
Achieves object permanence
Preoperational characteristics
learns language and represents objects by images and words(symbolic though)
Egocentric thinking
Classifies objects by a single feat:all red objects together despite different shapes
Concrete operational
thinks logically about objects and events
Conservation of numbers (6yrs), mass(7yrs) and weight (9)
Objects classify according to many feats
Formal operational
Thinks abstractly
Tests hypothesis
Concerned with hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
During amnesia what stage is retained?
concrete operational so they still understand the concept of dimension, space of objects etc
whats piaget principle of learning?
adaptation through assimilation and accomodation
whats assimilation
the process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit
assimilation
difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation
Behavioral learning focuses on increased probability of a behavior based on
reinforcement which has taken place in the past, so that the antecedents of the new behavior include consequences of previous behavior
Pavlov and watson use what model for behavior?
Unconditioned response
Unconditioned response involves actions like salivating. after association with bell ring, salivating was also elicited when the bell was rung
Skinner used what model for behavior?
operant conditioning
A rat had to press a bar when a light came on, otherwise it would get shocked. Rat quickly learned when to turn on the light
Bandura used what model for behavior
social modeling
Kid would be in a room, stranger would come in and kicked the bobo doll. Kid then would be allowed to interact wit h bobo doll, and kid would hit in the same manner the doll.
What did Bandura's bobo doll showed about behavior learning?
behavior is learned faster when theres' a model to follow-parents, media,peers etc
Whats learned helplessness?
its an aversive stimulus with no escape-decreases behavior
Encompasses some theories of depression
Imprinting involves
associating and learning with things closest to us during critical period
Attachement, language, other areas
Obesity and learned helplessness
when people can't lose weight no matter what they try, they stopped trying.
Stages of Kohlberg's model refer to
reasoning not actions or to people themselves
Kohlbergs model characteristics
moral reasoning is necessary, but not sufficient, condition for moral action
Piagets stages of cognitive development are a necessary but not a sufficient condition for
development of moral reasoning
Kohlberg stages
1. Obedience and punishment orientation
2.Individual exchange
Level 2
3.Good interpersonal relationships
4. Maintaining the social order
Level 3
5. Social contract and individual rights
6. Universal principles
Individual and exchange in the case of the Heinz example may refer to
Heinz thinking its ok to steal the drug, while the druggist would not
Maintaining the social order refers to
decisions from the perspective of society as a whole
Social contract and individual rights refers to
what makes for a good society
Universal principles refers to
achieving justice..only ghandi and dr king got here
Gilligan criticized kohlbergs in that
it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other values leading to ignore the arguments of other people who value other moral aspects
Gilligan argues Kohlbergs theory is androcentric meaning
he only used male participants and at the time it showed that girls on avg reached a lower level of moral development than boys
Gilligan produced her own stages but the transitions between these stages were fueled by
changes in the sense of self rather than in changes in cognitive capability
Kolhbergs stages are based on cognitive developments by piaget, whereas Gilligan's are based on
a modified Freudian approach to ego development, combined with elements of Kohlberg and Piaget.
Gilligan stages
Preconventional
Conventional
Post-conventional
Pre-conventional
Goal is individual survival
Pre-conventional transition to conventional is
from selfishness to responsibility to others
Conventional goal is
self sacrifice to others
the transition from conventional to post conventional is from
goodness to truth
Post conventional goal is
principle of nonviolence:do not hurt others or self