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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does "tabula rasa" mean?
Blank slate
Explain the imaginary audience, one of the developmental characteristics of adolescence noted by David Elkind
Adolescents, preoccupied with their own physical changes, assume that others are equally intrigued and are scrutinizing them.
Explain the personal fable, one of the developmental characteristics of adolescence noted by David Elkin.
Adolescents may believe that "my life is different from everyone else's; no one can understand how I feel or what I think." Leads to isolation and risky behaviors.
Define cognition.
Refers to all processes whereby knowledge is acquired, from basic perception to advanced operations.
In which field was Jean Piaget noted?
Cognitive psychology
Explain the state of disequilibrium, according to Piaget.
A state experienced by someone who encounters a new stimulus
Explain the concept of accomodation, as per Piaget.
Adjusting prior knowledge gained through former experiences and interactions in order to reach equilibrium.
Explain the concept of assimilation, as per Piaget.
Fitting together new information with what has been previously known or understood to reach equilibrium.
Define stage theories.
Theories that share the common tenet that certain characteristics will occur in predictable sequences.
List the four stages of cognitive development according to Piaget's theory.
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete operations
Formal operations
At what age do children generally experience the sensorimotor stage?
Birth to two years
At what age do children generally experience the preoperational stage?
Two and seven years
At what age do children generally experience the concrete operations stage?
7 to 11 years
At what age do children generally experience the formal operations stage?
11 to 15 years
As per Piaget, what stage is characterized by egocentrism, rigidity of thought, and semilogical reasoning?
Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
As per Piaget, what stage is characterized by an ability to consider other viewpoints, perform transformations, make inferences, and manipulate symbols?
Concrete operations stage (7-11 years)
As per Piaget, what stage is characterized by the ability to engage in logical and abstract thought and the abitility to use the scientific method.
Formal operations stage (11-15 years)
Which stage theorist defined eight stages of development in terms of polarities?
Erik Erikson
As per Erikson, preschoolers experience a stage of initiative versus ____.
Guilt
As per Erikson, school-age children experience a stage of industry versus _____.
Inferiority
According to Erikson, this happens when an adolscent finds out what they believe in, what their goals are, etc.
Identity achievement
As per Erikson, high school students experience a stage of intimacy versus ________.
Isolation
Name three internal factors that impact students.
Personality
Self-concept
Self-esteem
Self-discipline
Self-control
Ability to cope with stress
General outlook on life
Name three external factors that impact students.
Home environment
Family relationships
Peer relationships
Community situations
School environment
Who developed the hierarchy of human needs?
Abraham Maslow
Name the three levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Physiological
Safety
Need to belong
According to Tarivs, what leads to anger?
Unfulfilled expectations
Name three factors that can cause stress.
Environmental (pollution, crowding)
Physiological (sickness, injury)
Psychological (negative self-image)
Which researchers found that teachers are more likely to call on boys than girls?
David Sadker and Mary Sadker
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
Phenomenon in which what teachers expect becomes reality
What are some environmental factors in school that students may have preferences about?
Lighting
Noise
Seating
Temperature
Design
What are the four emotional factors for students?
Motivation
Persistence
Responsibility
Structure
Name some sociological factors in how students learn.
Social vs. independent learners
Close guidance vs. minimum guidance
Name some physiological factors in how students learn.
Preference for food and drnk while studying
Preferred time of day
Mobility
Perceptual strengths
What are the four learning styles?
Auditory
Visual
Tactile
Kinesthetic
Which theory of cognitive development describes learning in discrete and predictable stages?
Piagetian theory
What cognitive development theory focuses on the process of learning?
Information processing theory
What theory of intelligence takes into account three features of learning?
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
What are the three features of Sternberg's triarchhic theory of intelligence?
Mechanics
Experiences
Context
What is an instructional objective?
What students should be able to do as a result of instruction.
What is an instructional outcome?
What tasks a student should be able to perform as a result of achieving the instructional objectives.
What is metacognition?
What, how, and why people know whay they know when they know it. (Thinking about knowing.)
Who explained that there are three kinds of metacognitive knowledge?
Flavell
What are the three types of metacognitive knowledge?
Person knowledge
Task knowledge
Strategy knowledge