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112 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is matter?
anything that has mass and occupies space it is composed by elements
what is an element?
cannot be broken down to a simpler form, periodic table of elements list of them
what is chemistry?
the study of matter
what is an atom?
the smallest functional unit of elements
what is a nucleus?
is the central core of the atom and is made of positively charged protons and a nearly equal number of neutral particles called neutrons
a proton is?
positively charged and has mass
a neutron is?
neutral and has mass
what is an electron?
negatively charged particles that surround the atom, has hardly any mass and affect how an atom interacts with another element
protons and electrons together make most atoms?
neutrally charged
what is the atomic symbol?
one or two letters
exp: Na for sodium and O for oxygen
what is the atomic number?
the number of protons
what is the atomic mass?
roughly the same number of protons plus neutrons
what are isotopes?
atoms with either more or fewer neutrons than the usual number for that element, they have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass(diff number of neutrons.)
what are radioisotopes?
unstable isotopes that give off energy in the form of radiation
what can radioisotopes be used for?
exp: Carbon 14 used for dating fossils, diagnostic imaging, cancer treatment, power supply for implants such as cardiac pacemakers
what is energy?
the capacity to do work
what is potential energy?
stored energy
what is kinetic energy?
energy in motion
shells outside of the nucleus have?
more potential energy, (electrons have potential energy)
what are the types of chemical bonds?
covalent
ionic
hydrogen
what do covalent bonds consist of?
STRONG bonds- a bond in which the sharing of electrons between atoms result in each atom having a maximally filled outer shell of electrons
what is a non-polar covalent bond?
when electrons among atoms are shared equally
what is polar covalent bond?
when atoms dont share electrons equally
what is an ionic bond?
MODERATE bond- the bond between two oppositely charged ions (atoms or molecules that were formed by the permanent transfer if one or more electrons)
what is a positively charged ion?
forms when an atom loses electrons
what is a negatively charged ion?
forms when if an atom gains electrons
what is a hydrogen bond?
WEAK bond and is formed between polar molecules
WATER..why does life depend on it?
*is polar
*water is liquid at body temperature
*water can absorb and hod heat energy
*water is the biological solvent
*water helps regulate body temperature
what is a solvent?
liquid in which other substances dissolve
what is a solute?
any dissolved substance
what is hydrophilic?
polar molecules that are attracted to water and interact easily with water
what is hydrophobic?
non polar neutral molecules that do not interact with or dissolve in water
what is a hydrogen ion?
one of the most important ions in the body...a single proton w/out an electron)
acids?
donate hydrogen ions(protons)
into a solutions
exp: dropping acid in water
bases?
accept hydrogen ions (protons)
lower hydrogen ion concentration in solution
PH Scale?
a measure of hydrogen ion concentration
ranges from 0-14
Acid: pH <7
Neutral pH=7
Basic: pH >7
what is the normal pH for blood?
7.4
what is a buffer?
a buffer minimizes the change in pH and are essential to our ability to maintain homeostasis.
what is bicarbonate?
one of the most important buffer pairs in body fluids such as blood.
what is carbon and why is it important?
compromises 18% of the body by weight
forms four covalent bonds
can form a single or double bonds
can build micro- or macromolecules
what is dehydatrion synthesis within molecules in a cell?
removes equivalent of a water molecule to link molecular untis
requires energy
builds macro molecules from smaller sub units
what is hydrolysis within molecules in a cell?
adds the equivalent of a water molecule to break apart macromolecules
releases energy
what are the four classes of organic molecules?
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
why are carbohydrates important?
they are used for energy and structural support
what are monosaccharides? how many types?
simple sugars
glucose
fructose
galactose
ribose
deoxyribose
what are oligossaccharides?
more than one momosaccharide linked together..this can be done through dehydration process
what are oligossaccharides disaccharides?
dissaccharides are two monosaccharides linked together
exp:
sucrose: glucose+ fructose
maltose: glucose + glucose
lactose: glucose + galactose
what are polysaccharides stored by animals called?
glycogen
what is a polysaccharide?
complex carbohydrates- thousands of monosaccharides joined in chains and branches
what are polysaccharides stored by plants called? and how can we use them?
starch, we can use it for energy by breaking it down to glucose
what is cellulose?
indigestible polysaccharide made in plants for structural support
What are lipids and what is important about them?
they are insoluble in water.
what are the sub classes of lipids?
triglycerides;energy storage molecules
phospholips: cell membrane structure
steroids: carbon-based ring structures
what are triglycerides?
a lipid, also known as fat and oil
fatty acids
*saturated in fats
*unsaturated in oils
stored in adipose tissue
energy storage molecules
what is a phospholipid?
lipid
Glyserol + two fatty acids and phosphate group
One end of molecule is water insoluble(hydrophilic)
other end of molecule is water insoluble (hydrophobic)
PRIMARY COMPONENT OF CELL MEMBREANE
what is a steroid?
lipid- composed of four carbon rings
exp:
cholesterol
hormones
-estrogen
-testosterone
what is a protein?
a long chains of subunits called aminoacids that are joined by peptide bonds
what are the protein structures?
primary structure
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
what is the protein primary structure?
amino acid sequence
stabilized by peptide bonds
what is the secondary protein structure?
alpha helix
beta pleated sheets
stabilized by hydrogen bonds
what is the tertiary protein structure?
three denominational shape
stabilized by disulfide and hydrogen bonds
creates polar and non-polar areas in molecule
what is the quaternary structure?
two or more polypeptide chains are associated
how can protein function be disrupted?
denaturation
can be damaged by temperature or changes in pH
leads to loss of biological function
what are enzymes?
they facilitate biochemical reactions
Proteins
Function as biological catalysts
-speed up chemical reactions
-are not altered or consumed by the reaction
WITHOUT ENZYMES MANY BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS WOULD NOT PROCEED QUICKLY ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN LIFE!
the functional shape of an enzyme is dependent on?
temperature
pH
Ion condition
presence of inhibitors
wha are nucleic acids and what are their functions?
are long chains containing sub-units called neuclotides. they store genetic information
what are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
DNA- deoxyribosenucleic acid
RNA- ribonucleic acid
they store genetic information and provide information used in the making proteins
what are neuclotides in nucleic acids?
building blocks of nucleic acids
each nucleotide contain 5 carbon sugar
what is the DNA nucleotide?
deoxyribose
what is the RNA neuclotide?
ribose
what is the structure of DNA?
double stranded
neclotides contain
deoxyribose (sugar)
nitrogenous bases
adenine
guanine
cytosine
thymine
what is the structure of RNA?
single stranded
neuclotides contain ribose
nitrogenous bases
-adenine
-guanine
-cytosine
-uracil
what is the nucleic acid function?
DNA- instructions for making RNA
RNA- instructions for making proteins
Proteins: directs most of life's processes
DNA--> RNA --> Proteins
what is ATP?
adenosine triphosphate i
carries energy
universal energy group
bonds between phosphate groups that contain potential energy
breaking bonds releases energy
TP--> ADP + P + energy
what is the cell doctrine?
*all living things
*a single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all of the characteristics of life
*all cells come only from preexisting cells
what are prokaryotic cells?
they are located in the plasma membrane
have no nucleus
the cytoplasm fluid is in the membrane
has no true organelles
what are eukaryotic cells?
All human cells are eukaryotic
have a plasma membrane
nucleus:information center
Cytoplasm fluid within a membrane
orgaganelles:structured with specialized functions
what is the size of the cell?
microscopic cannot be seen without magnification
how much can a light microscope magnify?
1000X's and is the earliest microscope
what is a transmission electron microscope and how much can it magnify?
up to 100,000X's
100X's greater than a light microscope
the magnification is sufficiently high that one can see the structural details of organelles within cells.
what is the scanning electron microscope, what does it do, and how much does it magnify?
up to 100,000X
it gives a three dimensional look to the surface of the object.
why does the cell remain small?
to stay efficient
*small cells have a higher surface volume ratio
*high surface: volume ratio problems efficiency in
-acquisition of nutrients
-disposal of wastes
what surrounds the cell?
a wall called the plasma membrane surrounds the cell
separates a cell from its enviroment
selectively permeable
-permits movement of some substance into and out of the cell, but blocks others
Enables transfer of information between environment and cell
what exactly is the plasma membrane?
a lipid bilayer
-phospholipids:polar head and nonpolar tail
-cholesterol:makes membrane
a bit more regid
-proteins:provide means of transport through membrane
-carbohydrates:recognition patterns for cells and organisms
*non rigid
*fluid mosaic
How to molecules cross the plasma membrane?
passive transport
active transport
bulk transport
what is the passive transport through the plasma membrane?
cell does not need to expend energy bc it moves through a concentration gradient
-diffusion through lipid layer
-osmosis
-facilitated transport
What is the active transport through the plasma membrane?
cell must expend energy by moving moving substances from a lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
-requires ATP
what is the bulk transport through the plasma membrane?
-involves membranous vesicles to move larger substance
-endocytosis
-exocytosis
What is endocytosis?
moves materials is bulks into the cell
what is exocytosis?
moves material in bulk out of the cell
what is the sodium potassium pump?
sodium-potassium pump- expels unwanted ions,keeps needed ones and maintains cell volume.
ATP is used to expel3 Na+ ions into the cell and 2 K+ into the cell
the sodium potassium pump helps the cell_____________by allowing more sodium into the cell
increase in cell volume(decreasing pumping)
the sodium potassium pump allows the cells to _______________by expelling sodium out side of the cell
decrease in volume(increasing pumping)
what is isotonic?
extracellular and intracellular ionic concentrations are equal
cells maintain a normal volume in isotonic extracellular fluids
-regulatory mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid that is isotonic with intracellular fluid
what is tonicity?
relative concentration of solutes in two fluids
what are some variations in tonicity?
hypertonic
hypotonic
what is hypertonic tonicity?
-extracellular ionic concentration higher than intracellular
water will diffuse out of cell
-cell will shrink and die
what is hypotonic tonisity?
-extracellular ionic concentration lower than intracellular
-water will diffuse into cell
-cell may swell and burst
what are ribosomes?
site of protein synthesis
free floating in cytoplasm
attached to outer surface of endoplasmic reticulum
what are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough ER
-has ribosomes on surface
-protein manufacturing, modifications
Smooth ER
-no ribosomes on surface
-lipid synthesis
-packages the proteins
what is the golgi apparatus?
refines synthesized products
packaging and shipping center
products are packaged into vesicles and shipped to other locations within cell membrane for export
what are lybosomes?
contains powerful digestive enzymes, they perform housekeeping tasks like removing damaged mitochondria and other cellular debris.
what is the mitochondria?
"power plant of the cell
Surrounded by double membrane
utilizes oxygen to produce Co2
generates ATP
fat is what type of energy?
triglycerides
-long-term energy storage in animals
glycogen is what type of fat?
carbohydrate storage
short term storage in animals
what is the cytoskeleton?
consist of microtubes and microfilaments...forms a framework for the soft plasma membrane and it also supports and anchors the other structure w/in cell
what is the cilia and flagella?
cilia- are hairlike particles in a few cells
(2-10 microns long) moves material along the surface of with a brushing motion
flagella-(200 microns long) are ONLY found in sperm cells and allows them to swim
what is catabolism?
requires enzymes
breakdown of molecules
may release energy
used in breaking down nutrients and recycling all components
used to access energy storage
why is glucose so important for the cell?
it provides energy for the cell
energy in glucose is used to generate ATP
in absense of glucose other carbs, fats, proteins, can be catabolized to generate ATP
what are the four stages of cellular respiration?
glycolisis
preparatory step
citric acid cycle
electron transport system
what is glycolysis?
occurs int eh cytoplasm
series of ten reactions that split glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
2 ATP are produced
high energy electrons and hydrogen ions are removed and picked up by a coenzyme NAD+ forming NADH
what is the citric acid cycle?
occurs in mitochondria
also known as krebs cycle
extracts high energy electrons to form NADH and FADH2 produces 2 ATP and carbon dioxide