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40 Cards in this Set

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What is homeostasis?
Body systems working together to make sure cellular environment is kept constant.
Substances required by all cells?
Intake of oxygen and glucose and outtake of H20 and carbon dioxide.
Structure of the cell membrane?
Made of lipids and proteins. Arranged into two layers which create a bilayer.
What is diffusion?
The movement of a liquid or gas molecules from a high to a low concentration.
What is carrier-meditated transport?
Special proteins in a membrane bind to an ion or molecule.
Vesicular transport?
Substances move in or out of a cell enclosed in vescicles.
What is osmosis?
The movement of H20 across a differentially permeable membrane.
What is facilitated diffusion?
Carrier protein changes shape and moves molecule.
PASSIVE!!
What is active transport?
Same process as FD though against a concentration gradient using energy.
What is endocytosis and exocytosis?
Endocytosis is movement into a cell and exocytosis is movement out of a cell.
What is phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
Phagocytosis is solid material engulfed by a cell. Pinocytosis is liquids engulfed by a cell.
What is cellular respiration?
Organic molecules taken in as food and broken down to release energy.
Equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 - 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy.
What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate. Remaining energy from cellular respiration.
What is anaerobic respiration?
Breakdown of glucose. Pyruvic acid is produced in glycolysis then converted to lactic acid. Produces energy when oxygen is not available.
What is aerobic respiration?
Pyruvic acid produced from glycolysis is completely broken down to CO2 and H2O. Requires oxygen.
Where does anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration occur?
Anaerobic in the cytoplasm and aerobic in the mitochondria.
What is glycolysis?
One glucose molecule being broken down into pyruvic acid in the cytoplasm to produce 2ATP.
Does not require oxygen.
What is the Krebs Cycle?
Pyruvic molecules enter the mitochondria where a series of reactions results in 2ATP. Does require oxygen.
What is the electron transport system?
A further series of reactions in the mitochondria that can produce up to 34 ATP. (Requires oxygen.)
How is the ATP bond broken?
Bond between ADP and the third phosphate group is broken through cell division and active transport.
What is metabolism?
All chemical reactions that take place within the cells.
What is catabolism?
Reactions where large molecules break down to smaller ones.
What is anabolism?
Reactions where small molecules are built up to larger molecules.
What are enzymes?
Proteins that speed up metabolic reactions.
What is the lock and key theory?
Every enzyme has a specific substrate to react with.
What affects enzymes?
Concentration, temperature, pH, requirement of certain ions and non protein molecules.
Why is cellular respiration necessary?
It provides cell movement, uptake of materials from surroundings and production of chemical compounds.
What is involved in the relationship between ADP and ATP?
Glucose, CO2+H2O, protein and amino acids.
Which type of respiration produces more energy?
Aerobic produces more, 34 ATP.
Anaerobic produces 2 ATP through glycolysis of one glucose molecule.
What is oxygen debt? And how is it repaid?
Anaerobic respiration. Repaid by converting lactic acid to glucose. (Deep breaths.)
How do the cells keep the body temperature constant?
Heat energy from the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
What is synthesis?
Combining of small molecules to make larger molecules. (Same as anabolism.)
What is interphase?
DNA duplicates.
Prophase?
Nucleoli disappears and nuclear membrane breaks down. Chromatids join to become chromosomes. Spindle fibres form.
Metaphase?
Chromosomes align along the center of the spindle equator.
Anaphase?
Centromeres seperate and chromosomes move to opposite ends of spindle.
Telophase?
Spindle disappears. Nuclear membrane and nucleoli form, chromosomes uncoil, cytoplasm divides.
What is pH?
Acidity or alkalinity.
What nutrients are required for metabolism?
H2O, Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins.