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179 Cards in this Set

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Biology is the study of ?
Life
Similar cells form ?
Tissues
Several tissues make up an/a ?
Organ
First cells evolved __ billion years ago.
3.5 billion years ago
What is the biosphere?
A network of life that spans the surface of the Earth.
What is the estimated biodiversity of our planet?
15 million species
Define extinction.
The death of a species or larger group or organisms. We are losing approx 400 species a day.
Define experimental variable.
The variable which is deliberately changed in an experiment.
Define control group.
The group unexposed to the experimental variable.
Define test group.
The group exposed to experimental variable.
What is the cell theory?
A cell is the basic unit of life.
Are all living things made up of cells?
Yes.
New cells arise only from preexisting cells.
True.
What is a transmisssion electrom microscope?
Uses a set of magnetic lenses and electrons passing through the object to produce an image that is projected onto a fluorescent screen/ photographic film.
What is a compound light microscope?
It uses a set of glass lenses and light rays passing through the object to produce an image that can be veiwed by human eye.
New cells arise only from preexisting cells.
True.
What is does the Plasma membrane do?
Marks the boundaries between outside and inside of cell; selective passage of molecules into and out of cell.
What is the Plasma membrane combosed of?
Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Storage of genetic info.
What is the nucleus made up of?
Nuclear envelope surrounding nucleoplasm, chromatin (chromosomes), and nucleolus.
What does the nucleolus do?
Ribosomal formation.
Whatis the nucleolus?
Copncentrated area of chromatin, RNA, and proteins.
What do Ribosomes do?
Protein synthesis.
What are Ribosomes made up of?
Protein and RNA in two subunits.
What is the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) composed of?
Membranous saccules and cannals.
What does the Rough ER do?
Protein synthesis.
Which ER (smooth or rough) contains ribosomes.
The rough ER is studded with ribosomes.
What does the smooth ER do?
It does various things; lipid synthesis in some cells.
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
Processing, packaging, and distribution of molecules.
What is composition of Golgi Apparatus?
Stack of membranous saccules.
What do vacuole/vesicle do?
Storage and transport of substances.
What are vacuole and vesicles?
Membranous sacs.
What do Lysosome's do?
Intracellular digestion.
What are Lysosomes?
Membranous vesicle containing digestive enzymes.
What do Mitochodrion do?
Cellular respiration.
What does the Cytoskeleton do?
Maintain cell shape and allow the cell and its contents to move.
What is the cytoskeleton?
A network of interconnected filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm.
What do Cilia and flagella do?
Movement of cell.
What do the Centriole do?
Formation of basal bodies.
What is the Cytoplasm?
The portion fo the cell between the nuclus and plasma membrane.
What is unique about the phospholipid molecules in the Plasma Membrane?
Molecules have a polar head and nonpolar tails.
Describe the polar heads of plasma membrane molecules.
Polar heads, being charbed, are hydrophilic (water- loving) and face outward, toward the cytoplasm on one sie and the tissue fluid on the other side, where they will encounter a watery environment.
Describe the nonpolar tails of plasma membrane molecules.
Nonpolar heads are hydrophobic (not attracted to water) and face inward toward one another, where there is no water.
What happens when phospholipids are placed in water?
They naturally form a spherical bilayer because of the chemical properties of the heads and the tails.
Define Diffusion.
The random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed.
Is diffusion active or passive?
Passive. No cellular energy is needed.
Define Osmosis.
The diffusion of water across a plasma membrane. Involves a solute (dissolved substance) that would otherwise not be able to cross plasma membrane.
Define Tonicity.
The concentration of the solute in a solution vesus the concentration for the water.
Give an example of tonicity.
As the amount of salt or sugar increases, the amount of water in a solution decreases.
Define hypotonic solutions.
Solutions that cause cells to swell or even burst due to an intake of water.
Define Lysis.
Used to refer to disrupted cells.
What is hemolysis?
Disrupted Red Blood Cells.
Define hypertonic solutions.
Solutions that cuase cells to shrink/ shrivel due to loss of water.
What happens when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?
When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which has lower concentration of solute and higher concentration of water than cells, water enters and cells swell to bursting.
What happens when a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, which has hicher concentration of solute and lower concentration of water than cell, water leaves the cells and shrinks.
Define Crenation.
Red blood cells that have shrunk (hypertonic solution).
What happens during Facilitated Transport?
A molecule is transported at a rate higher than otherwise across the plasma membrane from the side of higher concentration to the side of lower concentration
Is facilitated transport passive or active?
Passive because the cell does not need to expend energy to move a substance down its concentration gradient.
What happens during Active Transport?
A molecule moves contrary to the normal direction- that is, from lower to higher concentration.
What is required for Active Transport?
A protein carrier and the use of cellular energy obtained from the breakdown of ATP.
What happens during Endocytosis?
A portion of the plasma membrane invaginates (forms a pouch) to envelop a substance and fluid. Then the membrane pinches off to form an endocytic vesicle inside the cell.
What is Phagocytosis?
When some white blood cells are able to take up pathogens (disease causing agents) by endocytosis
What happens during Exocytosis?
A visicle fuses with the plasma membrane as secretion occurs.
List the three parts of the Cytoskeleton.
Microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments.
What are Microtubules?
Much larger than actin filaments; each cylinder that contains 13 longitudinal rows of a protein called tubulin. Can Assemble/ Disassemble which is under control of microtubule organizing center called the centrosome.
What is the microtubule organizing center called?
Centrosome. Microtubules begin to assemble in the centrosome, and then grow outward, extending through the entire cytoplasm.
What are Actin Filiments?
Extremely thin fibers that usually occur in bundles or other groupings. Have been isolated from various trypes of cells, especially those in which movement occurs.
Can Actin filiments assemble/disassemble?
Yes.
What are Intermediate Filiments?
Intermediate in size between microtubules and actin fiaments. Their sturcture/function are different according to each type of cell.
What is the significance of chromatin?
Chromatin undergoes coiling into rodlike structures called chromosomes just before the cell divides.
What is unique about the phospholipid molecules in the Plasma Membrane?
Molecules have a polar head and nonpolar tails.
Describe the polar heads of plasma membrane molecules.
Polar heads, being charbed, are hydrophilic (water- loving) and face outward, toward the cytoplasm on one sie and the tissue fluid on the other side, where they will encounter a watery environment.
Describe the nonpolar tails of plasma membrane molecules.
Nonpolar heads are hydrophobic (not attracted to water) and face inward toward one another, where there is no water.
What happens when phospholipids are placed in water?
They naturally form a spherical bilayer because of the chemical properties of the heads and the tails.
Define Diffusion.
The random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed.
Is diffusion active or passive?
Passive. No cellular energy is needed.
Define Osmosis.
The diffusion of water across a plasma membrane. Involves a solute (dissolved substance) that would otherwise not be able to cross plasma membrane.
Define Tonicity.
The concentration of the solute in a solution vesus the concentration for the water.
Give an example of tonicity.
As the amount of salt or sugar increases, the amount of water in a solution decreases.
Define hypotonic solutions.
Solutions that cause cells to swell or even burst due to an intake of water.
Define Lysis.
Used to refer to disrupted cells.
What is hemolysis?
Disrupted Red Blood Cells.
Define hypertonic solutions.
Solutions that cuase cells to shrink/ shrivel due to loss of water.
What happens when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?
When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which has lower concentration of solute and higher concentration of water than cells, water enters and cells swell to bursting.
What happens when a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, which has hicher concentration of solute and lower concentration of water than cell, water leaves the cells and shrinks.
What is the significance of Chromosomes?
Each chromosome contains a specific DNA molecule and its associated proteins.
What is nucleoplasm?
A semifluid medium in which chromatin is immersed.
What are nucleoli?
Regions of chromatin where rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is produced and where rRNA joins with proteins to form the subunits of ribosomes.
What does the nuclear envelope do?
Separate the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?
A membranous system of saccules and channels continuous on the nuclear envelope.
What are Ribosomes?
Organelles composed of proteins and rRNA protein synthesis occurs at the ribosomes
Where are Ribosomes found?
Ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum; they also occur free within the cytoplam, either singly or in groups.
What are groups of Ribosomes called?
Polyribosomes.
What are the parts of the endomembrane system?
Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles.
What are vesicles?
Tiny membranous sacs.
Who is the Golgi apparatus named after?
Camillo Golgi (discovered in 1898).
What does the Golgi apparatus consist of?
A stack of slightly curved saccules. Here, proteins and lipids recieved from the ER are modified.
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
Involved in processing, packaging, and secretion of vessicles.
What are Lysosomes?
Membranous sacs produced by Golgi apparaus and contain hydrolytic enzymes. Special vesicles.
What are Cilia/Flagella?
Projections of cells that can move both in an undulating fashion (like whip) or stiffly (like oar).
What is longer, cilia or flagella?
Flagella.
Where are ciliated cells found?
Line our respiratory tract; sweep debris trapped within mucas back up the throat which helps keep the lungs clean.
How do cilia and flagella form?
Cilia/flagella frow from basal bodies that have the same organization as centrioles, which are structures located in centrosomes outside the nucleous.
What do mitochodria do?
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell by converting the chemical energy of glucose products into the chemical energy of ATP molecules.
What is the name and significance of the inner layer of mitochondria?
Called cristae (formed little shelves), which project into the matrix, an inner space filled with a gel-like fluid.
What is included in cellular metabolism?
All chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
What is fermentation?
An anaerobic process, meaning that it doesn't require oxygen. When oxygen is not available to cells, the electron transport chain soon becomes inoperative because oxygen is not present to accept electrons.
Packaging and secretion in a cell is a function of which organelle?
Golgi Apparatus.
The powerhouse of the cell is which organelle?
Mitochondria.
Which organelle is involved in protein synthesis?
Rough ER.
What is considered the control center of a cell?
Nucleus.
Vesicles carrying proteins for secretion move between the ER and the ________?
Smooth ER.
Lysosomes function in __________?
Intracellular digestion.
Which organelle is involved in cellular respiration?
Mitochondria.
Which of the following is a componenet of the cytoskeleton?
-Flagella
-Centrioles
-Microtubules
-Microvilli
Microtubules.
Do cilia and flagella contain microtubules?
Yes.
What organelle produces ATP?
Mitochondria.
A phospholipid molecule has a head and two tails. The tails are found ________.
In the interior of the membrane.
When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution ___________.
Water enters the cells and they swell and burst.
What is an Isotonic solution?
A solution concentration the same as the cell.
The metabolic process that produces the most ATP molecules is ________.
The electron transport chain.
Facilitated transport differs from diffusion in that __________.
It involves the use of a carrier protein.
The active site of an enzyme
a. is identical to that of any other enzyme.
b. is the part of the enzyme where its substrate can fit.
c. can be used over and over again.
d. is not affected by environmental factors, such as pH and temp.
e. Both b and c are correct.
e.
The oxygen required by cellular respiration becomes part of which molecule?
H2O.
Which of the following is not true of fermentation?
-has a net gain of only two ATP.
-occurs in the cytoplasm
-donates electrons to the electron transport chain
-begins with glucose
-occurs in the absence of oxygen.
Occurs in the cytoplasm.
A tissue is composed of ______.
Specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body.
What is the function of connective tissue?
Binds and supports body parts.
What is the function of Muscular tissue?
Moves the body and its parts.
What is the function of Nervous tissue?
Receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses.
What is the function of Epithelial tissue?
Covers the body surfaces and lines body cavities.
How are cancers classified?
By the type of tissue from which they are from.
Cancers arising in muscle or connective tissue are refered to as what?
Sarcomas.
Cancers of the blood are refered to as what?
Leukemia.
Cancers of lymphoid tissue is refered to as what?
Lympohomas.
Cancers of the epithelial tissue are what?
Carcinomas.
What is the most common cancer type?
Carcinomas.
What are the three componenets of connective tissue?
Specialized cells, ground substance, and protein fibers.
What does the term matrix refer to?
Ground substance and protein fibers.
What does an adipose cell do?
Cells enlarge to store fat.
What does a mast cell do?
Releases chemicals after an injury or infection.
What does a ground substance do in connective tissue?
Fills spaces between cells and fibers.
What does a stem cell do?
Divides to produce other types of cells.
What does fibroblast cells (in connective tissue) do?
Produce fibers and ground substance. The are located some distance from one another and are separated by a gelly-like matrix containing white collagen fibers and yellow elastic fibers.
What is reticular fiber (in connective tissue)?
Branched, thin, forms network.
What do white blood cells do?
Produce antibodies. Engulfs pathogens.
What is elastic fiber (in connective tissue)?
Branched and strechable.
What is collegen fiber (in connective tissue)?
Unbranched, strong but flexable.
What is loose fibrous connective tissue?
Supports epithelium and also many internal organs.
Give examples of organs with fibrous connective tissue.
Lungs, arteries, and urinary bladder allows these organs to expand. Forms protective covering enclosing many internal organs such as muscles, blood vessels, and nerves.
What does the body use adipose tissue for?
Energy, insulation, and organ protection.
Where is adipose tissue found?
Beneath the skin, around the kidneys, and on surface of the heart.
What is dense fibrous connective tissue and what does it do?
Contains packed collagen fibers with specific functions such tendons and ligaments.
What defines Type A blood?
Type A antigen on the surface of the RBC.
What defines Type B blood?
Type B antigen on the surface of the RBC.
What defines Type AB blood?
Type A and B antigens on the surface of the RBC.
What defines Type O blood?
No antigens on the surface of RBC.
What is the most common blood type?
Type O.
What is the rarest blood type?
Type AB.
What is the Universal donor blood type?
Type O.
What is Rh-positie blood?
Blood protein found on the surface of the RBC.
What is Rh-negative blood?
Absence of this protein antigen on the surface of the RBC.
__________ disease of hte newborn is due to a pregnancey in which the fetus is Rh-positive and an Rh-negative mother begins to produce antibodies against Rh-positive RBC.
Hemolytic Disease.
What does it mean when someone is B+?
Means that Type B blood, + means you have a Rh factor.
Pulmonary circuit is powered by the ________.
Right ventricle.
Pulmanary arteries carry _____ to the ________.
Oxygen poor Blood to the lungs.
Pulmonary veins carry ___ from lungs to the ______.
Oxygen rich Blood from lungs to the heart.
Systemic circuit is powered by the _______ ventricle.
Right ventricle.
Aorta carries _______ to all ________.
Oxygen rich to all organs.
Vena cava returns ____ to the ________.
Oxygen poor blood to the right atrium.
Coronary circuit supplies blood to the _______ itself.
Heart muscle.
Coronary circuit...
fist branches off the aorta, arteries can become clogged and by pass surgery may be necessary.
Renal cirut supplies blood to the _______.
The kidney.
The digestive process is to 1) ______ food, 2) it to nutrients, 3) _______ nutrients, and 4) ______ indigestivle remainss.
Ingest food, digest it to nutrients, absorb nutrients, and eliminate indigestivle rfemains.
What is mechanical digestion?
Chewing, churning, and segmentation
What is chemical digestion?
Action of enzymes on foods.
How many pairs of salivary glands do we have?
Three.
Salvary glands secrete ______.
Salivary amylase.
The tongue mixes chewed food with saliva and forms a _____.
Bolus.
We have a set of deciduous teeth (______ teeth) are replaced by adult set of (_________) teeth
20 teeth deciduous; 32 teeth adult.