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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
definition of anatomy
structure
anatomical position
erect, arms at sides, palms forward
Gross Anatomy
decent body--detect with naked eye-macro
histology
looking at cells
superior, inferior, medial, lateral
above, below, surface closest to midline, surface farthest from midline
proximal, distal, efferent, afferent
end closest to the point of attachment of body trunk, furthest.., main organ(away from), toward
Afferent
veins take towards heart
Homeostasis
syeady-state conditions, maintained by coordinated physiological processes
sagittal plane
vertical plane, divides body into left and right portion
midsagittal plane
vertical, divides body into right and left halves
transverse plane
horizonal, divides body into superior and inferior portions
frontal (coronal) plane
A vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
midclavicular sagittal plane
A vertical line passing through the midpoint of the clavicle
Types of body cavities
vental, dorsal
Ventral body cavity contains
Thorasic-heart upper area, and abdominal
Dorsal body cavity
cranial, spinal
Vertebral levels
cervical (neck)
Thoracic (ribs)
Lumbar
Sacrum
synapses
connections between nerve cells
integumentary system
skin/hair
nervous system
spine
endocrine
produces hormones
excretory
urinary
lymphatic
immune system
chemical construct of cells
H20, sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium ions, phosphate
Calcium ions in the cell are responsible for
skeletal muscle contractions
electron microscope discovered in
1935
mitochondria
power houses of the cell, make ATP
cells are all surrounded by a
plasma membrane
Eukaryote cells
nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles
prokaryote cells
lack nucleus and organelles
plasma membrane
outer covering of the cell
nucleus
houses cells genetic material and functions as teh information center
cytoplasm
cell material, includes everything inside the cell except the nucleus--composed of cytosol
organelles
carry out specialized fucktions such as digesting nutrients or packaging cell products
passive transport
transports molecule without requiring cell to expend energy
diffusion
movement of molecules from 1 region to another as a result of random motions
concentration gradient
difference between concentrations
concentration of solutes vs. H20
higher the concentration of solutes, the lower the concentration of H20
How diffusion occurs
all molecules have kinetic energy-energy of motion, moving around inside body causing diffision to occur
factors affecting rate of diffusion
temperature--warmer>faster
size of diffusing molecules
osmosis
movement of ONLY water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration
solvent and solute in body
solvent-water solute-nacl
tonicity
solvent minus the solute
hypotonic solution
more solvent than solute-more H20 going inside cell, causing an increase in size
isotonic solution
Same solvent and solute, cells remain the same--physiological saline
hypertonic solution
more solute than solvent--more H20 inside cell, causing decrease in size
moving against concentration gradient
active transport
Requirements for active transport
energy source, carrier molecule
substances moved in Active transport
ions, puts ions where they belong
sodium potassium pump
uses ATP energy to transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
Cellular Respiration
The conversion within the cell of nutrients (such as sugar molecules) into chemical energy in the form of ATP, by reacting the food with oxygen (O2) until the food has completely been degraded into carbon dioxide and H2O.
glucose yields _ Atp
2 + a lactic acid
2 lactic acid yeild _ ATP
36
annabolism
molecules assembled into larger molecules that contain more enery, this process requires energy
catabolism
larger molecules broken down, energy is released
cellular respiration occurs
in mitochondria
Tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Epithelial Tissues
covering/lining tissue, skin
functions of epithelium
protection-some cells produce mucus
secretion-of mucus
absorption-absorv into bloodstream from GI tract
epithelium chracterized by
shape, layers, surface modification
simple squamous epithelium
one layer, flat
endothelium-lines blood vessels
mesothelium-lines body cavities
cuboidal epithelium is found
comprised of cube shaped cells froms kidney tubules
columnar epithelium
comprised of tall rectangular cells--lines larynx and digestive tract
goblet cells
sevrete mucus
basement membrane
provides structural support, directly beneath cells of epith tissue
transitional epithelium
tissue when cell shape is distended or relaxed--urinary bladder
Connective Tissue
serves to connect and support body parts, specialized functions
connective tissue characterized by
fibers, cells, matrix
Areolar (loose) connective tissue
mostly collagen and elastin fibers in no particular pattern, more ground substance
flexible but only moderately strong
surrounds internal organs, muscles and blood vessels
Dense connective tissue
mostly collagen in a parallel arrangement of fibers
tendons and ligaments
Adipose tissue
fat cells
cartilage types
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
epidermis
stratum corneum, stratum lucidium, stratum granulosum, stratum germinativum
melanocytes
determine skin color
dermis
pars papillaris
reticular portion
contains nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics
irratibility
sense receptors, hot cold pressure pain
dendrites
cytoplasmic extensions that extend from the cell body and receive signals from other neurons
canaliculi
In bone, channels that run through the calcified matrix between lacunae containing osteocytes.
axon
long extension that transmits electrial impulses
haversion system
osteons--