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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the systems?
Respiratory
Endocrine
Muscular
Digestive
Immune
Skeletal
Circulatory
Urinary
Reproductive
Nervous
Integumentary
structural chain
systems -> organs -> tissues -> cells
definition: tissue
group of closely associated, similar cells that carry out specific functions
4 types of animal tissue
Muscle
Nervous
Epithelial
Connective
structure of muscle tissue
each cell is elongated fiber containing many contractile units (myofibrils). myofibrils made up of sarcomeres, which shorten during contraction. striations due to arrangement of proteins, actin (thin) and myosin (thick). sarcomeres separated by Z-line. I-bands (actin) extend toward center from Z-line. myosin located in H-bands. A-bands where they overlap
3 types of muscle
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
smooth muscle
involuntary motion;
located in walls of organs;
responsible for movement of food through digestive system;
elongated, spindle-shaped fibers each with one central nucleus;
cardiac muscle
involuntary movement;
branched fibers;
1 or 2 nuclei;
weakly striated;
intercalated discs where cells joined
skeletal muscle
voluntary;
only muscle attached to bone;
elongated multinucleated cells;
can't replicate when developed;
heavily striated
Nerve cell structure
Dendrites receive signals;
Cell body processes information;
Axon transmits signals;
Schwann cells create myelin sheath;
signals jump along nodes of Ranvier between Schwann cells (saltatory conduction)
functions of epithelial tissue
Sensation
Absorption
Protection
Secretion
3 shapes epithelial tissue
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
3 types epithelial tissue
simple (one later)
stratified (many layers)
pseudostratified (one layer that looks like many under microscope)
simple epithelium functions
secretion, excretion, absorption, diffusion
stratified epithelium function
protection
simple squamous epithelium
large flat cells; lines blood vessels and air sacs in lungs, gas diffusion, material diffusion
stratified squamous epithelium
outer layer of skin, lines passageways into body, continuously regenerates as top layer is sloughed off, protection,
lines esophagus
pseudostratified epithelium
cells rest on basement membrane but are oddly shaped, lines respiratory passageways (ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium)
simple cuboidal epithelium
line kidney tubules and ducts of some glands, secretion (and absorption in kidneys), stratified in some sweat glands
simple columnar epithelium
elongated cells with nuclei near end, secretion and absorption, lining of digestive organs, stomach, intestines
3 functions of connective tissue
joins other tissues
supports body/organs
protects underlying organs
5 types of connective tissue
loose
adipose
bone
blood
cartilage
structure of connective tissue
fewer cells separated by intercellular substance (matrix)
loose (areolar) connective tissue
major cell: fibroblast which secretes collagen (thick) and elastin (thin);
important in healing wounds;
forms thin membranes;
binds skin to underlying organs;
most fluid;
reservoir for salts/fluids
adipose tissue
specialized form of loose;
fibroblasts specialized to store fat;
function in fat (energy) storage, protection, support, insulation
hyaline cartilage
most common cartilage;
primary cells: chondrocytes which are housed in lacunae in the matrix;
bone
compact bone surrounding spongy layer with marrow;
repeated units called osteons;
primary cell: osteocytes;
arrangement of osteocytes: Haversian system
structure of osteon
central Haversian canal with nerves/blood vessels;
concentric circles radiate out (lamellae);
osteocytes located in hollow spaces (lacunae);
cytoplasmic extensions radiate out from osteocytes (canaliculi)
blood
Primary cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets (cell fragments) all suspended within plasma;
erythrocytes
carry O2 and CO2, no nucleus, most common blood cell, smallest, flexible bioconcave disc
anemia
deficiency in hemoglobin, decrease in RBCs, inadequate supply of O2, caused by loss of blood, decreased production of hemoglobin (iron or B12 deficiency), increased rate of RBC destruction
2 functions of leukocytes
protection
immunity
2 categories of leukocytes and types within categories
agranulocytes (mococytes, lymphocytes)
granulocytes (neutrophils, eosiniphils, basophils)
neutrophils
granulocyte, most common, granules stain pink, 2-5 lobes in nucleus, principal phagocytic cells in blood
eosinophils
very rare, granules stain dark red, bilobed nucleus, detoxification, increases during allergic reaction
basophils
rare, granules stain blue, bilobed nucleus, granules contain histamine
monocytes
largest WBC, 3x size of RBC, somewhat lobed nucleus (kidney shaped), macrophage (cleans up debris/foreign matter)
lymphocyte
somewhat larger than RBC, nucleus takes up most of cell, specialized to create antibodies or directly attack foreign invaders
platelets
no nuclei, aid in clotting, small bits of cytoplasm, originate from megakaryocyte cell