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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 macronutrients
carbohydrates, lipids (fats), and proteins
2 types of micronutrients
vitamins, minerals
immediate energy, long chains of sugar molecules
longerm energy storage, stored as fat (adipose tissue), membrane structure
composed of amino acids, broken down by body and used to create various new proteins, seldom used as energy, many specialized fxns
organic compounds necessary for various body processes
vitamin A *
fxn: visual pigments used by eue
deficiency: blindness
source: milk and vegetables
vitamin D *
fat soluble
fxn: calcium absorption
deficiency: weak bones, rickets in children
source: fortified milk
vitamin E
fat soluble
fxn: antioxidant
deficiency: nerve damage
source: vegetable oils
vitamin K *
fat soluble
fxn: synthesis of blood-clotting proteins (prothrombin)
deficiency: hemorrhage
source: intestinal bacteria
vitamin C *
water soluble
fxn: proper form of connective tissue
deficiency: loosening teeth and bleeding gums, then scurvy
source: fruits & veggies
thiamine (b)
water soluble
fxn: carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism
deficiency: beriberi (weak heart, nervous/digestive system disorders)
source: liver and green leafy vegetables
riboflavin (b)
water soluble
fxn: cellular respiration
deficiency: dermatitis
source: liver and green leafy veggies
niacin (b)
water soluble
fxn: cellular respiration
deficiency: pellagra
source: liver and green leafy veggies
water soluble
fxn: amino acid metabolism
deficiency: dermatitis
source: green leafy vegetables
pantothenic acid (b)
water soluble
fxn: cellular metabolism
deficiency: rare
source: whole grains
folate (b)
water soluble
fxn: maturation of RBCs
deficiency: type of anemia, birth defects
source: liver
biotin (b)
water soluble
fxn: metabolism
source: liver
b12 *
water soluble
fxn: proper formation of RBCs
deficiency: pernicious anemia
source: meat & fish
vitamin fxns
coenzymes, metabolic function within the cell (breakdown of carbs, lipids, and proteins and making ATP)
fxn: main mineral of bones and teeth
source: milk and other dairy products
fxn: most fxns of any mineral, component of ATP, ADP, and RNA
source: meat
fxn: component of many proteins/vitamins
source: high-protein foods
fxn: muscle contraction
source: fruits and veggies
fxn: fluid balance/neural transmission (positive ion in interstitial fluid)
source: salt
fxn: fluid balance (negative ion in interstitial fluid)
source: salt
fxn: normal muscle/nerve fxn
source:whole grains
fxn: hemoglobin synthesis
source: liver
deficiency: menke's syndrom
excess: wilson's disease
iodide *
fxn: component of thyroid hormones (increase metabolic rate)
source: seafood
deficiency: goiter (enlarged thyroid)
fxn: activates many enzymes
source: whole-grain cereals
iron *
fxn: component of hemoglobin, essential to O2 transport
source: meat
deficiency: anemia
fxn: component of bonest and teeth
source: fish
fxn: cofactor in at least 70 enzymes
source: meat and fish
fxn: antioxidant
source: seafood
fxns of digestive system
storage and movement
digestion & breakdown
how digestion begins in mouth
teeth tear food into pieces: bolus;
tongue sends info to brain and assists in movement;
salivary glands release salivary amylase which begin digestion of carbs
how food is moved through digestive tract
stomach fxns
2 muscle layers for mechanical mixing;
rugae: folds which allow stomach to expand;
glands in walls release pepsin and HCl;
bolus becomes chyme;
protein digestion starts;
releases small amounts to small intestine
3 parts of small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
fxn of small intestine
rest of digestion of carbs, proteins, fats
structure of small intestine
villi and microvilli to increase surface area
large intestine
cecum, colon, rectum, anus;
contains bacteria needed to create vitamin K;
fluids reabsorbed;
waste moved to rectum and voided through anus (defacation)
path of food through body
mouth, pharynx, esophageal sphincter, esophagus, cardiac sphincter, stomach, pyloric sphincter, SI (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), ileo-cecal sphincter, LI (cecum, colon, rectum), anus
lipids trigger release of this hormone which triggers gallbladder to release bile
acidity of chyme causes release of this hormone which signals pancreas to release its enzymes
molecules absorbed from SI travel to liver first through hepatic portal system, processed, then released into blood
protective functions of stomach
alkaline mucus secretion;
tight fit of epithelial cells;
rapid regeneration of epi cells
peptic ulcer
forms when protective fxns fail and somtach lining is digested, helicobacter pylori bacteria implicated
small intestine structure
large folds: plica circulares;
villi and microvilli in mucosa layer, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, circular muscles, longitudinal muscles, serosa
stomach enzymes
food in stomach triggers gastrin (nonspecific) causes release of specific enzymes (Pepsin and HCl)
flap that covers trachea when swallowing