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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a-
without, lack of
ex: asymptomatic (absence of symptoms)
ab-
away from
ex: abstinence (to hold back from)
acou-
hearing
ex: acoustics (science of sound)
-ac, -al
pertaining to
ex: cardiac (the heart), myocardial (heart muscle)
ad-
to, toward, near to
ex: adduction (move toward midline)
aden-, adeno-
gland
ex: adenoma (tumor of a gland)
af-
toward
ex: afferent (moving toward)
albi-
white
ex: albinuria (passing of pale or white urine)
-algia
painful condition
ex: myalgia (muscle pain)
an-
without, lack of
ex: anesthesia (absence of pain)
andro-
male
ex: androgens (male hormones)
angi-, angio-
vessel
ex: angiopathy (disease of blood vessels)
ante-
before
ex: antepartum (before birth)
anti-
against
ex: anticoagulant (prevents blood from clotting)
apo-
separated from, off
ex: apodia (congenital absence of feet)
arthr-, arthro-
joint
ex: arthritis (inflamation of a joint)
-ary
associated with
ex: uninary (associated with urine)
-asis, -asia
condition or state of
ex: homeostasis (state of metabolic balance)
audio-
hearing
ex: auditory (belonging to the hearing sense)
auri-
ear
ex: auricle (ear shaped)
auto-
self
ex: autolysis (self breakdown)
baro-
weight, pressure
ex: baroreceptor (receptor for pressure changes)
bi-
twice, double
ex: bicuspid (two cusps)
-blast
germ, bud
ex: chondroblast (cartilage-producing cell)
brachi-
arm
ex: brachial (of the arm)
brady-
slow
ex: bradycardia (slow heart rate)
bucc-
cheek
ex: buccal cavity (inside cheek region)
callo-
thick
ex: callosity (thickening of keratinized layer of epidermis)
carcin-
cancer
ex: carcinogenic (causing cancer)
cardio-
heart
ex: cardiogram (register of heart activity)
caud-
tail
ex: caudal (by the tail)
cephal-
head
ex: cephalic (by the head)
cerebro-
brain
ex: cerebrospinal (of the brain and spinal cord)
chondro-
cartilage, gristle
ex: chondrocyte (cartilage cell)
-cide
kill
ex: spermicide (agent that kills sperm)
circum-
around
ex: circumduction (movement forming a circle)
-clast
break
ex: osteoclast (cell that breaks down bone)
co-, com-
with, together
ex: cooperate, gray commissure (connects right/left horns)
contra-
against, opposite
ex: contralateral (opposite side)
cost-
rib
ex: intercostals (between the ribs)
crani-
skull
ex: cranial activity (where the brain is)
cune-
wedge
ex: cuneiform (wedge shaped)
cuti-
skin
ex: subcutaneous (under the skin)
cyan-
blue color
ex: cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin)
cysti-, cysto-
sac, bladder
ex: cystoscope (instrument for examining inside of bladder)
-cyte, ctyo-
cell
ex: erythrocyte (red blood cell), cytology (study of cells)
demi-
half
ex: costal demifacet (half-moon facet on vertebra for rib articulation)
derm-
skin
ex: dermatology (study of skin)
di-, diplo-
two
ex: diploid (two sets of chromosomes)
duct-, -duct
lead, draw
ex: ovarian duct, adduct (to lead away from)
dur-
hard
ex: dura mater (tough menix of CNS)
dys-
painful, difficult, bad
ex: dysuria (painful urination)
e-, ec-, ef-, ex-
out, from
ex: efferent (carries away from), excretion (eliminate from)
ecto-
outside, outer
ex: ectocardia (displacement of hear)
-ectomy
to cut out
ex: appendectomy (removal of appendix)
ede-, -edem
swelling
ex: myodema (muscle swelling)
-el, -elle
small
ex: organelle (tiny structure that performs specific cellular functions)
endo-
within
ex: endocardium (lining within heart chambers)
entero-
intestine
ex: enteritis (inflamation of intestines)
epi-
upon, on
ex: epicardium (membrane covering heart)
ex-, exo-
outside
ex: exhale (breathe out), exocrine (gland that secretes to outside)
extra-
outside
ex: extracellular (ouside the cell)
-ferent
carry
ex: afferent (carries toward)
-form
resembling, shape of
ex: fusiform (spindle-shaped)
gastr-, gastro-
stomach
ex: gastric ulcer (stomach ulcer)
-genesis, -genic
produce, origin
ex: gluconeogenesis (glucose from another molecule), carcinogenic (causes cancer)
gloss-, glosso-
tongue
ex: hypoglossal (under the tongue)
glyco-
sugar, sweet
ex: glycolysis (breakdown of glucose)
gyn-
female, woman
ex: gynecology (treatment of female reproductive organs)
hapto-
single
ex: haploid (single set of chromosomes)
hem-, hemato-
blood
ex: hematology (study of blood)
hepato-
liver
ex: hepatitis (inflamation of the liver)
hetero-
different
ex: heterosexual (involving different sexes)
hist-, histo-
tissue
ex: histology (study of tissues)
holo-
whole, entire
ex: hologynic (manifests only in females), holocrania (absence of all bones of skull vault)
homo-, homeo-
same
ex: homeostasis (constancy of body parameters)
hydro-
water
ex: hydroadipsia (absence of thirst for water)
hyper-
over, above
ex: hypertrophy (overgrowth of cells or part)
hypo-
below, under
ex: hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
idio-
self, distinct
ex: idopathic (disease of unknown source)
intra-
below
ex: infraspinatus (below the spine of scapula)
inter-
between
ex: interosseous (between two bones)
-issimus
greatest
ex: latissimus (widest)
iso-
equal, same
ex: isotonic (same concentration)
-itis
inflammation
ex: neuritis (inflamation of nerve)
juxta-
near
ex: juxtaglomerular (near the glomerulus)
labi-
lip
ex: labia major (thickened folds of skin and connective tissue in female external genitalia)
lacto-
milk
ex: lactose (milk sugar)
leuko-
white
ex: leukocyte (white blood cell)
lip-
fat
ex: lipid (an operational term denoting solubility characteristics; "fat soluble")
-logy
study
ex: urology (study of unrinary system)
-lysis
breaking up, disolve
ex: hemolysis (breaking up erythrocytes)
macro-
large
ex: macrophage (certain large leukocytes)
mamm-, mast-
breat
ex: mammary glands, mastectomy (breast removal)
medi-
middle
ex: medial (toward midline)
melano-
black
ex: melanocyte (dark pigment-producing cell)
-mers, -meres
parts
ex: polymers (larger molecules made of monomers)
meta-
after, beyond
ex: metastasis 9beyond the original position)
micro-
small
ex: microorganism (very small organism)
mono
one, single
ex: monomer (a single part), monosaccharide (a simple or single sugar)
morph-
form, shape
ex: morphology (study of shape)
myo-
muscle
ex: myometrium (muscular wall of uterus)
necro-
dead
ex: necrotic (being of dead tissue)
neo-
new
ex: neonatal (newborn)
nephro-
kidney
ex: nephrology (study of kidneys)
neuro-
nerve
ex: neurilemma (nerve cell membrane)
oculo-, ophthalm
eye
ex: oculomotor (movement of the eye), ophthalmology (study of the eye)
odonto-
tooth
ex: odontoid (shaped like a tooth)
-ole
little
ex: arteriole (small artery-like vessel)
oligo-
few, little, deficient
ex: oliguria (little urine output)
-oma
tumor
ex: carcinoma (cancerous tumor), osteoma (benign bone tumor)
oo-
egg
ex: oocyte (egg cell)
-osis
condition of
ex: osteoporosis (having bones that are porous)
osse-, osteo-
bone
ex: osteoblast (bone-forming cell)
oto-
ear
ex: otogenic (originating within the ear)
para-
near, beside
ex: paranasal (by the nose)
-pathy
disease
ex: neurophathy (nerve disease)
pelv-
basin
ex: renal pelvis (collection area in kidney)
-penia
deficiency
ex: leucopenia (deficiency of leukocytes)
peri-
around
ex: periosteum (membrane covering bones)
phag-
eat
ex: phagocytosis (cellular eating)
phil-
have an affinity for
ex: lipophilic (associates with fat)
-plegia
paralyze, stroke
ex: paraplegia (paralysis of lower extremities)
pneumo-
air, gas, lungs
ex: pneumothorax (air in the pleural cavity)
-poie, -poiesis
make, formatin of
ex: erythropoietin (hormone that stimulates erythrocyte production)
poly-
many
ex: polycythemia (excess erythrocytes)
post-
after
ex: postnatal (after birth)
pre-
before in time, place
ex: prenatal (before birth)
pro-
before in time, place
ex: prosect (to cut for demonstration)
pseudo-
false
ex: pseudostratified (not tru layered)
quad-
fourfold
ex: quadriceps femoris (4-headed muscle of anterior thigh)
rami-
branch
ex: ramus (primary division of a nerve)
rect-
straight
ex: rectus abdominis (stright muscle of abdomen)
reno-
kidney
ex: renal (of the kidney)
retro-
backward, behind
ex: retroperitoneal (posterior to the peritoneum)
sclero-
hard
ex: arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
semi-
half
ex: semilunar (half-moon shaped)
serrate-
saw-edged
ex: serratus anterior (muscle of the thorax)
somato-
body
ex: somatotropin (growth hormone)
steno-
narrow
ex: stenosis (narrowing of opening)
sterno-
breast, chest
ex: sternum (bone over heart and medial to ribs)
stria-
stripe
ex: striated (showing stripes or lines)
sub-
under
ex: subcutaneous (under the skin)
super-, supra-
above, upper
ex: supercilia (upper brows), suprarenal (superior to the kidney)
sym-, syn-
together, with
ex: symphysis (growing together), synapse (where neurons, or neuron and muscle fiber, meet)
tachy-
fast
ex: tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
therm-
heat
ex: thermometer (tool to measure temperature)
thorac-
chest
ex: thoracic cavity ( body cavity containing heart, lungs)
thrombo-
blood clot
ex: thrombocyte (platelet)
-tomy
cut, incise
ex: appendectomy (removal of appendix)
topo-
place, position
ex: ectopic (being out of place)
trans-
across
ex: transdermal (across the skin)
tri-
three
ex: triceps brachii (three-headed muscle)
-tropic
influencing
ex: gonadotropic (effecting the gonads)
tunica-
layer, coat
ex: tunica interna (inner part of blood vessel)
ultra-
beyond, excess
ex: ultradian (more than every 24 hours)
uni-
one
ex: unicellular (single cell)
-uria
urine
ex: polyuria (excess urine)
vas-
vessel
ex: vasodilation (widening of lumen of blood vessel)
vertebro-
spine
ex: vertebrae (bones of the spine)
villo-
hair
ex: microvilli (minute projections of cell membrane)
viscer-
internal organ
ex: visceral (of the internal organs)
zyg-
yoked, paired, union
ex: azygos (unpaired anatomical structure)