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46 Cards in this Set

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mesenteries
double layer of peritoneum suspending the abdominal organs from the posterior body wall
retroperitoneal
structures outsied the peritoneal cavity, but considered in the abdominal region (kidneys, adrenal glands, lower part of colon, pancreas, urinary bladder)
rough endoplasmic reticulum
membranous tubules and flattened sacs with attached ribosomes - protein synth. and transport to golgi apparatus
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
membranous tubules and flattened sacs with NO attached ribosomes - manufactures lipids and carbohydrates, detoxifies harmful chemicals, stores calcium
ribosome
site of protein synthesis
golgi apparatus
modification, packaging, and distribution of proteins and lipids for secretion or internal use
lysosome
contains digestive enzymes - membrane bound vesicle pinched off golgi apparatus
proteasomes
tube-like protein complexes in cytoplasm - break down proteins in the cytoplasm
mitochondria
enclosed by double membrane, inner membrane forms projections called cristae - MAJOR SITE OF ATP SYNTHESIS when oxygen is AVAILABLE
selectively permeable
allows water but not all the solutes dissolved in the water to diffuse across - characteristic of plasma membrane
diffusion
movement of solutes from an area of higher conc. to an area of lower conc.
osmosis
diffusion of water(solvent) across a selectively permeable membrane (plasma membrane)
osmotic pressure
foce required to prevent movement of water by osmosis across a selectively permeable membrane
isosmotic
have same concentration of solute particles and same osmotic pressure - even if types of solute particles in the 2 solutions differ
hyperosmotic
solution having a greater conc. of solute particles, and therefore a greater osmotic pressure than another solution
hyposmotic
more dilute solution with the lower osmotic pressure
isotonic
solution which causes a cell to neither shrink or swell - shape of cell remains constant, maintaining its internal tension or TONE
hypertonic
water moves out of cell by osmosis, causing cell to shrink
hypotonic
cell placed in solution and water moves into cell by osmosis, cell swells
crenation
red blood cells - water moving by osmosis from cell into the hypertonic solution, causing cells to shrink
lysis
water moving by osmosis into cell, causing it so swell and rupture
mediated transport mechanisms
when something cannot exit the cell by diffusion - carrier proteins or channels within plasma membrane that move large, water soluble molecules or elec. charged molecules or ions across
facilitated diffusion
carrier-mediated or channel-mediated process moving substances into or out of cells FROM A HIGHER TO A LOWER CONCENTRATION - no energy required, CAN'T move across conc. gradient
active transport
mediated transport process requiring ATP - CAN MOVE FROM LOWER TO HIGHER CONC. (ACROSS CONC GRADIENT) (SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP)
secondary active transport
active transp. of an ion such as Na+ out of a cell, establiching a concentration gradient, with a higher conc. of the ions outside the cell
receptor-mediated endocytosis
receptor site combine only with certain molecules
pinocytosis
much smaller vesicles than phagocytosis, same concept, but liquid inside the vesicle
CAT
(Computerized axial tomographic scans) - computer analyzed x-ray images. Low intensity xray tube rotated through 360 deg. arc around patient, images fed to computer - construcs image of "slice" where beam was rotated
Ultrasound
uses high-frequency sound waves (sonar technology). emitted from transmitter-reciever placed on skin over area. Sound bounces back off internal organs - computer analyzes pattern of sound waves
DSR
(dynamic spatial reconstruction) same as CAT but uses about 30 xray tubes. images are compiled to produce 3-d image. FAST
DSA
(digital subtraction aniography) 3-d radiographic image of organ such as brain made and stored in computer... radiopaque dye injected into circultation, second radiographic computer image is made. 1st image subtracted from second one
MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging) directs radio waves at person lying inside large electromagnetic field - causes protons of various atoms to aligh (detecting some forms of cancer and tumor better than CAT)
PET
(positron emission tomographic) identify metabolic states of various tissues (useful for BRAIN) radioactively treated "labeled" glucose given to patient. gamma rays given off, detected
hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue/superficial fascia)
attaches skin to bond and misscle; supplies it with blood vessels and nerves - loose connective tissue w/collagen and elastin fibers - cells are fibroblasts, adipose cells, macrophages
sebacious glands
in dermis, spimple or compound alveolar glands that produce sebum
interstitial growth
chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between the cells
appositional growth
chondroblasts in perichondrium lay down new matrix and add new chondrocytes to the outside of the tissue
perichondrium
double layered CT sheath covering most carilage - outer layer is dense iregular CT containing fibroblasts, inner has fewer fibers and contains chondroblasts
epiphyseal (growth) plate
hyaline cartilage between epiphysis and diaphysis
diaphysis
bone shaft, mainly compact bone
epiphysis
ends of bone
periosteum
CR membrane covering outer surface of bone - outer layer is dense irreg. collagenous CT containing blood vessels and nerves, inner is single layer of bone cells
hematopoeisis
blood cell production
endosteum
thin CT layer internal surface of bone cavities (such as medullary cavity)
parathormone
hormone that increases blood levels of calcium and phosphorus - stinmulates osteoclast activity
calcitonin
fron thyroid stimullates osteoblast activity (decreases blood levels of calcium and phosphorus)