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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Each one carries a single positive charge
protons
bio-
life
di-
two
glyc-
sweet
iso-
equal
lip-
fat
-lyt
dissolvable
mono-
one
sacchar-
sugar
syn-
together
-valent
having power
Body functions depend on -----------
cellular functions
Cellular functions result from__________ changes
chemical
A life science called biological chemistry
biochemistry
Anything that has weight and takes up space
matter
All matter is composed of fundamental substances called
elements
chemical combinations of elements
compounds
elements required by the body in large amounts are called
bulk elements
Some elements that are toxic in large amounts but vital in very small amounts.
Ultratrace elements
The smallest complete units of elements
Atoms
Components of an atom:__&________
Nucleus and electrons
Small, with almost no weight and carry a charge that is ________
negative
Symbol Cl
Chlorine
Uncharged (electrically neutral) particle found in the nucleus
neutron
A particle that is electrically charged because it gained or lost one or more electrons.
ion
Formed by the chemical union of two or more atoms.
molecule
symbol O
oxygen
symbol C
carbon
symbol H
hydrogen
symbol N
nitrogen
symbol P
phosphorus
symbol K
Potassium
symbol S
Sulfur
Symbol Na
Sodium
symbol Mg
magnesium
symbol Co
cobalt
symbol Cu
copper
Symbol F
Fluorine
symbol I
iodine
symbol Fe
Iron
symbol Mn
Manganese
symbol Zn
zinc
Activity that forms or breaks bonds of atoms, ions or molecules___________ ___________
chemical reaction
Those being changed by chemical reactions
Reactants
Those formed by reactions' conclusions
Products
When bonds break to form simpler ions, atoms or molecules
decomposition
symbol of synthesis
A + B (ra) AB
variance in the atomic weight of an element is caused by the variance of the number of____
neutrons
What largely influences the interactions of atoms?
Number of electrons
T/F All isotopes of an atom chemically react in the same manner.
True because they have the same number of electrons. Electrons determine the interactions.
Unstable isotopes that will release energy or pieces of themselves are said to be_________
radioactive
Energy or atomic fragments released by unstable isotopes is called_____
atomic radiation
Three common forms of atomic radiation include
alpha beta & gamma
This radiation consists of very small particles (electrons), moves fast and can deeply penetrate matter.
beta
The most penetrating common form of radiation
Gamma
Gamma radiation is similar to
X-radiation
What is used to depict the numbers and kind of atoms in a molecule?
Molecular formula
When atoms of the same element combine, what are they called?
a Molecule of that element
If atoms of different elements combine, what are they called?
compounds
When atoms combine by forming bonds, they do what 3 possible things with electrons?
gain, lose or share electrons
The regions of space around a nucleus are called___________
shells
For atomic number 18 (or under) what is max electrons in 1st three shells?
18
chemically inactive
inert
outermost electron shells are filled in these atoms
inert
atoms with incompletely filled outer shells tend to _________ _________ or _________ electrons
gain lose or share electrons
atoms that gain or lose electrons
ions
symbol Na+
sodium ion with a positive charge of +1
symbol cl-
chloride ion with a negative charge -1
Oppositely charged ions ______________
attract
electrovalent bond
ionic bond
Example of ionic bond
Sodium positive and chlorine negative
Na+ and Cl- unite to become NaCl (table salt)
Term when atoms bond by sharing electrons
Covalent bonding
When one pair of electrons are shared in bonding
Single covalent bond
When two pair of electrons are shared in bonding
double covalent bond
The anomaly existing in a polar molecule
One atom slightly negative and another slightly positive.
Where do the polar covalent bonds typically occur?
Where hydrogen bonds to oxygen or nitrogen
Why are polar molecules soluble in water?
Because water molecules themselves are polar.
The attraction of positive hydrogen of one polar molecule to the negative nitrogen or oxygen of another polar molecule is called ________ _______________
hydrogen bond
Usually atoms of each element form specific numbers of _________ ________
chemical bonds
hydrogen atoms form how many chemical bonds?
only one
oxygen atoms form how many chemical bonds?
two
Nitrogen atoms form how many chemical bonds?
three
Carbon atoms form how many chemical bonds?
four
Single lines or double lines used to represent respective bonds, are called ____________ ____________
structural formulas
Radiation that adds or removes electrons from atoms is called
ionizing radiation
SYMBOL OF DECOMPOSITION
AB (ra) A + B
Reactions particularly important in growth and repair
Synthesis
Reactions when food stuffs are digested and release energy
Decomposition
synonym for exchange reaction
replacement reaction
Symbol for exchange reaction
AB + CD (ra) AD + CB
Reaction when parts of two kinds of molecules trade positions
Exchange reaction
Example of exchange reaction
Acid reacting with a base to produce water and salt
Molecules that influence rates of reactions but are not consumed in the process
Catalysts
What does the polarity of water cause in ionically bound salts?
The salts dissociate from one another NaCl becomes Na+ + Cl-
Substances that release ions in water
electrolytes
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water
Acids
symbol of reaction wherein electrolytes create acid by releasing hydrogen ions in water
HCl becomes H+ + Cl-
Electrolyte ions that combine with hydrogen ions in water
bases
Example of electrolyte that releases ions that combine with hydrogen to form a base
NaOH (yields) Na+ + OH-
Acids and bases can react to form water and electrolytes (called _____)
salts
Example of reaction of acid and base to create water and salt
HCl + NaOH (ra) H2O + NaCl
Three types of electrolytes ___ __ ___
acids, bases, salts
In acids (hydrogen ions ) what unit of measure tells us its concentration?
grams of ions per liter of solution
Shorthand system for acid concentration (grams of ions per liter of solution)
pH scale
As hydrogen ion concentration increases the pH number______________
Decreases (becomes more acidic)
What is the size increase or decrease between each whole number on the pH scale?
Tenfold
Because water ionizes to release equal acid and base ions, it is said to be _____________
neutral
What is the pH of neutral water
pH is 7.0
What is the complete range of the pH scale
0 to 14
egg white pH
8.0
hominy pH
7.7
human blood pH
7.4
sodium bicarbonate pH
8.4
borax pH
9.2
milk of magnesia pH
10.5
household ammonia pH
11.5
cows milk pH
6.6
dates pH
6.2
corn pH
6.0
white bread pH
5.5
cabbage pH
5.3
carrots pH
5.0
banana pH
4.6
tomato juice pH
4.2
grapes pH
4.0
sauerkraut pH
3.5
apple juice pH
3.0
vinegar pH
2.4
lemon juice pH
2.3
gastric juice pH
2.0
Example of water ionizing to become neutral
H2O (ra) H+ + OH-
When pH changes out of its natural range in the body the result is ___________
illness
Severe vomiting that would empty the alkaline small intestines would cause _______________
acidosis
Mild vomiting that depletes stomach acid would cause_____________
alkalosis
Two large groups of chemicals regarding metabolism__________ and_________
organic and inorganic
Most metabolic reactions occur in
water
Blood is mostly___________
water
The substance in blood that enables it to absorb and carry heat
water
Name four inorganic substances found in cells (w, o, cd, i.s.)
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and inorganic salts
A complete atom has no charge because the number of electrons and protons are__________
equal
A solution that contains electrically charged particles (ions) will conduct an ____________ ____________
electric current
Because they dissolve in water or react in water to produce ions, inorganic chemicals are
electrolytes
Electrically uncharged particle of the nucleus
Neutron
Elements required in small amounts by the body are called__
trace elements
How many of the elements can be called naturally occurring matter?
92
Inert atoms cannot form ____________ __________
chemical bonds
Large particle found within the nucleus,carries a positive charge and is relatively large.
proton
Name of the reaction when two or more ions, atoms, or molecules bond into a more complex structure
synthesis
Organic chemicals that dissolve in water do not release ions and are called
nonelectrolytes
Otherwise very different, protons and neutrons are about equal in ___
weight
Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
atom
The number of protons in an atom, delineates its _________ ___________
Atomic number
The radiation that emits two neutrons and two protons, moves slowly and does not penetrate matter easily is called
Alpha radiation
The six bulk elements include carbon oxygen and hydrogen and also N_________,S________ and P_________.
nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom essentially equal its __________ ___________
atomic weight
What does the subscript of an atom indicate?
The number of atoms of a specific type in a given formula.
What is the maximum electron total in the 1st three shells of an element having 18 or less electrons
18 2 in 1st and 8 in each subsequent shell.
When atoms have the same atomic number but different atomic weight they are called _____
isotopes
Why is the nucleus always positively charged?
It contains protons
extremely small particle with a negative electrical charge, almost no weight and in constant motion around a nucleus.
electron
nucle-
kernel
A molecule that has equal numbers of electrons and protons but one atom has more than its share of electrons
polar molecule
Large particles of the nucleus
Protons and usually Neutrons
Examples of bases s h,p h,m h,s b
sodium hydroxide
potassium hydroxide
magnesium hydroxide
sodium bicarbonate
Blood pH of 7.5 to 7.8
alkalosis
formula carbon dioxide
CO2
formula chloride ions
Cl-
formula potasium ions
K+
Functions of water
Major component of body fluids
Medium in which most biochemical
reactions occur.
Transports various chemical substances
Helps regulate body temperature
Function of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-
help maintain acid base balance
acid examples c,h,a,p
carbonic acid
hydrochloric acid
acetic acid
phosphoric acid
Examples of salt s c, a c, m s.
sodium chloride
aluminum chloride
magesium sulfate
Blood pH of 7.0 to 7.3
Acidosis
Formula Bicarbonate ions
HCO3-
formula Hydrogen ions
H+
Formula Sodium ions
Na+
Function of Oxygen
Used in release of energy in glucose molecules
Function of carbonate ions (CO3-2)
component of bone tissue
Chloride ions (Cl-)
Help maintain water balance
Function of hydrogen ions (H+)
pH of the internal environment
Sulfate ions (SO4-2)
Help maintain polarization of cell membranes

acid-base balance
Carbohydrates classified by ____.
Size: either simple or
complex
Acid characteristic
Substance that releases hydrogen ions
solutions with more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions are _____________
acidic
symbol water
H2O
formula calcium ions
Ca+2
Formula magnesium ions
Mg+2
formula sulfate ions
SO4-2
Magnesium ions (Mg+2)
Component of bone tissue

required for certain metabolic processes.
Funtion of Phosphate ions (PO4-3)
Required for synthesis of ATP
nucleic acids
vital substances
component of bone tissue
Help maintain polarization of cell membranes.
Function of Potassium ions (K+)
Required for polarization of cell membranes
Important groups of organic substances in cells include c_________
l_________
p_________
n_________ a______
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
characteristic of base
Substance that releases ions that can combine with hydrogen ions
characteristic of salt
substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
Solution with fewer hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions
basic
formula oxygen
O2
formula carbonate ions
CO3-2
formula Phosphate ions
PO4-3
Function of carbon dioxide (CO2)
Waste product that results from metabolism
Function of Calcium ions (Ca+2
Necessary for bone developement
Muscle contraction
Blood clotting
Function of sodium ions (Na+)
Required for polarization of cell membranes

Help maintain water balance
In carbohydrates the usual ratio of hydrogen to oxygen (give examples)
2 to 1
IE:Glucose C6 H12 O6
sucrose C12 H22 O11
A polysaccharide similar to starch that is synthesized by animals (including humans)
glycogen
Another name for complex carbohydrates built from many simple carbohydrates.
polysaccharides
a common name for simple carbohydrates
sugars
A single sugar: carbohydrate.
Monosaccharide
A double sugar: simple carbohydrate
disaccharide
Its molecules consist of branched chains of sugar units.
glycogen
Glucose (dextrose), fructose and galactose are__
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides include 3 to 7 carbon atoms and are structured in a ________ ______ or a ____.
Straight chain or a ring
Disaccharides consist of 2 ___ _______ units.
six carbon units
Examples of disaccharides include _______ and ________
sucrose (table sugar)
and
lactose (milk sugar)
Picture




C6 H12 O6
monosaccharide (glucose) may have a straight chain of carbon atoms
glucose is also called
dextrose
picture




C6 H12 O6
Often glucose molecules form a ring structure
picture




This shape symbolizes what
ring structure of a glucose molecule
What is the solubility characteristic of lipids?
organic chemical soluble in organic liquids but insoluble in water.
Most common lipids
fats
Primary use of fats
supply energy for cellular activities
Contrast Fats Hydrogen Oxygen ratio with that of carbohydrates. Example:
Fats have a much lower oxygen ration than carbs. (The fat Tristearin: C57 H110 O6)
The building blocks of fat molecules
______ _______and___________
Fatty acids and glycerol
Of every fat molecule, one portion is always the same.
The glycerol portion is the same in all fat molecules.
At the end of the chain of carbon atoms, all fatty acids include a ________ group: (symbol).
Carboxyl group (-COOH)
What is characteristic of a saturated fatty acid?
The carbon atoms are linked by single carbon-carbon bonds and each carbon atom binds as many hydrogen atoms as posible and thusly are SATURATED with hydrogen atoms.
What is charasteristic of monounsaturated fatty acids?
They are not 100% saturated with hydrogen atoms because there is one (mono) bonding that is double bonding between carbon-carbon atoms rather than all single bonded.
What is characteristic if poly unsaturated fatty acids?
They have two or more double bonds of carbon and thusly cant get maximally saturated with hydrogen atoms as in a single carbon-carbon bonding situation.
How are fatty acids and glycerol united?
Each glycerol molecule combines with three fatty acids. (triglyceride)
Fat molecules that contain only the saturated fatty acids:
Saturated fats
Fat molecules that include unsaturated fatty acids are calle____________
unsaturated fats