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52 Cards in this Set

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The science of the microscopic structure of tissue.
Histology
What are the four types of tissue?
Epethilial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Epethelial tissue

-where can it be found?
-organization?
-example?
epethilial tissue covers and lines all organs and tubes.

Well-organized

Glands
Connective tissue

-found whrere?
-organization?
EVERYWHERE. it acts as the glue of the body (holds us together)

NOT well-organized
Muscle

-does what
Contractile tissue- allows for movement.
nervous tissue

does what?
conduct electrical impulses
Epithelial cells are so well-organized and very pact that is why they are found where?
At boundaries they prevent leaks.
What are the two basic types of EPETHELIAL TISSUE?
Membranous
glandular
What are membranous epithelial tissue used for?
they line all cavities opened or closed to the outside
what are glandular epithelial tissue used for?
they form secretory portions. (make and secrete a product)
What are the six features that distinguish epithelial tissue?
1.) Cellularity- made up almost exclusively of cells.
2.) Specialized contacts- between cells to make TIGHT junctions
3.) Polarity- have both a base (basal) and an opening to the environment (apical)
4.) Supported by connective tissue.
5.) Avascular but innervated
6.) Easy regneration
Classification of Epithelial tissue

Simple vs. Stratified?
Simple- one cell layer thick (allows for easy diffusion)

Stratified- two or more layers thick (allows for more protection.
Simple epithelial tissue are further categorized by shape.

what are the three shapes?
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
Simple squamous epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
flat cells

to absorb, diffuse, filter, TRANSPORT THROUGH

In walls of blood vessels (endothelium), lining of cavities (mesothelium)

Pulmonary alveoli
Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
cube shaped

To transport

Found more in cellular machinery and within ducts whose function is secretory and/or excretory

Kidneys
Simple columnar epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
column shapeed

Absorption mostly in the digestive system (increases Surface area)

GOBLET CELLS (make mucous)
Simple ciliated columnar epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
column shaped with cilia

cilia function to transport material across tubes.

found in the female reproductive tract.
Simple pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
Appear to be multiple cell layer thick but its just that the nucleus is not at the same level as the cell.

removes dust and bacteria trapped in tubes.

Found in the trachea and bronchial tubes.
Stratified squamous epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
flat tissue many cell layers thick

PROTECTION- best protective tissue.

Found in all epithelium (KERATINIZED).
Stratified Cuboidal epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
Cube shaped... only about 2 cell layers thick.

Protection

lines large ducts including sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas
Stratified columnar epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
Column-shaped

Found in large ducts (such as male urethra)
Stratified transitory epithelial tissue

-shape?
-function?
-found where?
-example?
FOUND ONLY in the urinary bladder.

allows bladder to change shape
Glandular epithelium
-secrete large amounts
- produce ONE substance
What are the two types of glandular epethilia
-endocrine- in the blood stream
-exocrine- secretes thrugh a duct (sweat)
Exocrine glands can be
unicellular or multicellular
Combinations of ducts

-tubular
-alveolar
-simple
-compound
-branched
-unbranched
.
Merocrine glands

secretion:
examples:
constantly secretes
wont break down
example: sweat and salivary
Apocrine
partial cellular destruction
CANNOT constantly secrete
Ex: Armpits and mammary gland
Holocrine
Entire cells die off and are part of the secretion

sebaceous glands
Connective tissue

functions:
the most abundant tissue
-houses WBC and phagocytic cells
-mantains fluid levels
-stores fats
Embryonic connective tissue

-also called
-functions
mesenchyme

migrates and will eventually form all other types of tissue
Connective tissue proper

-properties
-how many kinds?
-composite fibers?
loose, flexible

5

Collagen- very tough
Fibroblasts- make all other fibers
reticular fibers- smaller not as tough
elastin- allows elasticity
Loose connective tissue has 5 subtypes what are they?
Areolar
Adipose
Reticular
Dense irregular
Dense regular
loose connective: Areolar

found where:
fibers:
function:
example:
MOST ABUNDANT Connective tissue (which is the most abundant tissue)

wraps around organs

lots of collagen

surrounds all blood capilaries

holds skin underneath muscle
Loose connective adipose

made up of:
found where:
function:
fat cells mixed with tissue

store energy and provide protection

concentrated around kidneys, heart and joints.
Reticular connective tissue

made up of:
purpose:
example:
alot of reticular fibers

to protect body and form spleen and phagocytes

spleen
Dense IRregular tissue

made up of:
function:
example:
lots of collagen fibers

to protect bones from tensile strength
Dense regular connective

Arranged:
purpose:
examples:
parallel to the direction of force

resists tensile pressure

ligaments and tendons
you can strain what
you can sprain what
tendons and muscles
ligament
Cartellage is the 3rd of 5 tissue classes.

-also called
-vascular?
-innervated?
- maneuvers what?
chondrocytes

no; no

water
what are the three classes of cartellage?
Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartillage
Hyaline Cartillage

-found where?
- tough or weak?
- example?
MOST ABUNDANT CARTILLAGE

-covers ends of long bonds
-tough but allows bending
-found in SYNOVIAL JOINTS
Elastic cartilage

-found where?
-tough or movable?
ears and epiglottis

very moveable
Fibrocartilage

-tough or movable
-found where?
-purpose?
Very tough
areas of high stress (intervertebral disks, knee joints, pubic bone)
durable and shock absorbant
Bone tissue

-also considered what
- matrix of what 2 substances
the MOST RIGID connective tissue

calcium (very rigid)
intracellular collagen (flexibility)
Blood

-also called what?
-made up of what 3 substances
-function
a class of connective tissue

Plasma
RBC
WBC

to transport minerals, gases, wastes, and nutrients.
Muscle tissue has three classes what are they?
-smooth
- cardiac
- skeletal
Smooth muscle tissue

-size
-nucleated?
-voluntary/involuntary?
-striations?
large
multinucleated
voluntary
striations
Cardiac muscle

-involuntary/voluntary?
-stiations?
-communication?
-nucleated?
involuntary
striated
has intercalated discs to synchronize heart beats.
ONE NUCLEUS
Smooth muscle tissue

-voluntary/involuntary?
-striated?
-nucleated?
-involved in?
involuntary
no
ONE NUCLEUS
digestion primarily
Nervous tissue can be broken into two clases what are they?
Neuons
Glial cells
What is so unique about nervous tissue?
they can propogate electrical signals.