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49 Cards in this Set

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Differentiation
leads to the formation and organization of all the diverse cell types
prenatal period
the first 38 weeks of human development (pregnancy)
pre-embryonic period
first 2 weeks of development, zygote becomes a blastocyst, implants in uterus
embryonic period
third through eigth weeks of development
fetal period
remaining 30 weeks of development prior to birth
embryogenesis
first developmental stage, includes clevage, gastrulation, and organogenesis
cleavage
zygote divides by mitosis to form a blastocyst
gastrulation
blastocyst forms three primary germ layers, all body tissue will develop from these
organogenesis
germ layers arrange themselves in ways that give rise to all the organs
gametes
sex organs
autosomes
contain genetic info for human characteristics
tetrad
actual pair of homologous chromosomes
Steps of Meiosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis I and II
oogonia
female diploid cells that undergo the process of meiosis
Primary oocytes
arrested in Prophase I until female reaches puberty
polar body
when female eggs go through mitosis, only one of the two gets bulk of cytoplasm, the other dies off (this happens twice)
secondary oocyte
the egg that matures, has bulk of cytoplasm, and can be fertilized
Fertilization
process whereby two sex cells fuse to form a new cell containig genetic material from both parents
Capacitation
a period of conditioning for sperm that enable it to fertilize the egg (digestive enzymes)
acrosome
membranous cap at head of sperm
Polyspermy
more than one sperm accidentally fertilizes the egg-immediate fatality
Morula
the 16-cell stage of baby development
Trophpoblast
an outer ring of cells surrounding the fluid-filled cavity of blastocyst
Embryoblast
inner cell mass of a blastocyst,
divides into hypoblast/epiblast, or blastodisc
Functional layer
layer of endometrium (not basal) where implantation penetrates
Cytotrophoblast
the inner cellular layer of the trophoblast after it divides
Syncytiotrophoblast
the outer, thick layer of the trophoblast after it divides
yolk sac
the first extraembryonic membrane to form
amnion
thin membrane formed from and continuous with epiblast
chorion
outermost extraembryonic membrane, eventually blend with endometrium and form the placenta
Functions of the Placenta
exchange nutrients, waste and gases, maternal antibodies, productions of hormones to maintain and build uterine lining
connecting stalk
precursor to umbilical cord
gastrulation
process by which the cells of the epiblast migrate and form the three primary germ layers
invagination
cells detach from the epiblast layer and migrate through the primitive streak between the epiblast and hypoblast
mesoderm
middle layer
endoderm
cells that take the place of the hypoblast (side opposite primitive streak)
ectoderm
cells that remain in the epiblast
cephalocaudal folding
occurs in the cephalic (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the embryo
transverse folding
occurs when the left and right sides of the embryo curve and migrate towards the midline, restricts and pinches the yolk sack (becomes gut tube)
notochord
forms immediately internal and parallel to the primitive streak, beginnings of nervous system tube
somites
praxial mesoderm, blocklike masses responsible for the formation of muscle
intermediate mesoderm
forms most of the urinary and reproductive system
lateral plate mesoderm
on both sides of neural tube, thin and give rise to cardiovascular system, lining of body cavities, and connective tissue
head mesenchyme
mesoderm that forms connective tissues and musculature of the face
organogenesis
organ development
teratogens
substances that can cause birth defects or death (alcohol, tobacco smoke, drugs, some viruses, aspirin)
fetal period
from beginning of third month of development to birth, maturation
CRL and CHL
crown-rump length and crown-heel length
totipotent
cell that has the potential to differentiate into any cell or tissue type in the body