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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where did anatomy first become a recognzied discipline?
Alexandria, Egypt
Galen of Pergamum
"Prince of Physicians"
Vesalius
promoted the idea of "living anatomy", parts of a whole
Leonardo da Vinci
dissected bodies to improve his drawing and painting techniques
Anatomy
the study of structure, "to cut up" or "to cut open"
Physiology
study of the function of the body structures
Cytology
study of the cells of the body and their internal structure
Histology
study of tissues formed by cells and cell products
Developmental anatomy
study of structural changes in the body between conception and maturation
Embryology
study of origin and development of the organism from fertilization of the oocyte until birth
Pathologic anatomy
study of characteristic changes that occur during illness
Radiographic anatomy
study of anatomic structures or features observed by noninvasive procedures, such as ultrasound or x-ray
Regional anatomy
study of gross anatomy of all structures, external and internal, in one region of the body, such as an upper limb
Surface anatomy
study of superficial anatomic markings and gross anatomy of internal structures relative to overlying skin surface
Surgical anatomy
study of anatomic landmarks used prior to surgery
Systemic anatomy
Study of gross anatomy of all the components of an organ system
Microscopic anatomy
study of structures not visible to the naked eye, encompasses cytology and histology
Gross (Macroscopic) anatomy
study of body strucutres observable by the unaided eye
What is the simplest level of organization within the body?
the chemical level, which consists of atoms and molecules
Tissues
precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions
Organs
different tissue types combine to form an organ that all work together
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
Chemical->Cellular->Tissue-> Organ->Organ System->Organismal
All organisms carry out various chemical reactions, collectively termed __________.
metabolism
Homeostasis
control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism that maintain a consistent internal environment
Integumentary System
hair, skin and associated glands, protection and body temperature and water
Skeletal System
bones, cartilage, support and protection, blood cell production, body movement
Muscular System
muscles, body movement, heat during contraction
Nervous System
regulatory system, helps control all other systems, consciousness, intelligence and memory, sensory system
Endocrine System
glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, regulate growth, chemical levels, and reproductive functions
Cardiovascular System
a pump (the heart) that moves blood through body delivering nutrients and picking up wastes
Lymphatic System
Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid) and controls immune response
Respiratory System
Exchange gases between blood and air in the lungs
Digestive System
Mechanically and chemically digests food products, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste
Urinary System
Filters the blood and removes waste, expels urine
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
No explanation needed
anatomic position
stand upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, head is level, eyes forwards, palms forward, thumbs pointing away from body
coronal plane
frontal plane, divides anterior (front) from posterior (back) parts
transverse plane
cross-sectional plane or horizontal, separates superior (upper) and inferior(lower)
sagittal plane
medial plane, separates right and left halves
oblique plane
passes through the specimen at an angle
anterior
in front of or toward the front surface
posterior
in back of or toward the back surface
dorsal
at the back side of the human body
ventral
at the belly side of the human body
superior
toward the head or above
inferior
toward feet not head
caudal
at the rear or tail end
cranial
at the head end
medial
toward the midline of the body (sagittal plane)
lateral
away from the midline of the body (sagittal plane)
deep
on the inside
superficial
on the outside
proximal
closet to point of attachment to trunk
distal
furthest from point of attachment to trunk
axial region
includes the head, neck, and trunk
appendicular region
our limbs, or appendages
parietal layer
lines the internal surface of the body wall
visceral layer
covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity
cranial cavity
formed by the cranium and houses the brain
vertebral canal
formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord
diaphragm
separates the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
serous fluid
reduce friction and helps organs move smoothly against both one another and the body wall
Human Body Regions
see page 14 for chart
Posterior aspect
contains the cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Ventral cavity
contains the Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic cavity
contains the Mediastinum, Pleural caivty, and Pericardial cavity
Abdominopelvic cavity
contains the Abdominal and Pelvic cavities
Mediastinum
contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart
Pericardial (associated with heart)
Pericardial membranes
Pleural (associated with lungs)
Pleural membranes
Abdominal
Peritoneal membranes
Pelvic
Peritoneal membranes
Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants
see page 17 for pictures