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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the skin that covers your body, also known as the cutaneous membrane
integumentary system
consists of skin and derivatives-nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
scientific study and treatment of integumentary system
integument has two separate layers
a kater of stratified squamous epithelium called epidermis, and a deeper layer of dense irregular connective tissue called dermis
subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
deep to the dermis, layer of areolar and adipose connective tissue (not part of ingeumentary system)
skin is selectively permeable
some materials are able to pass through the skin and others are effectively blocked
transepidermal water loss (TEWL)
some interstitial fluids slowly penetrate the epidermis to the surface, where they evaporate
insensible perspiration
release of water vapor from sweat glands under "normal" circumstances when we are not sweating
epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells
immune cells (phagocytic) in the skin
tactile (Merkel) cells
large, specialized epithelial cells that stimulate specific sensory nerve endings when distorted by fine touch or pressure
sensible sweating
occurs when the body needs to cool itself off
from sebaceous glands that lubricates the skin surface and hair
nitrogenous waste product of body cells
keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium
stratum basale
deepest epidermal layer, tightly attached to underlying basement membrane that separates the epidermis from connective tissue of adjacent dermis
stem cells that provide new epidermal cells to replace superficial dead ones
transfer pigment granules into keratinocytes in basal layers
straum spinosum
just above stratum basale, nondividing, highly specialized keratinocyte
stratum granulosum
keratinization begins, upper layer
stratum lucidum
thin, translucent, superficial to granulosum, only in thick skin, filled with protein eleiden (intermediate keratin)
stratum corneum
most superficial layer of epidermis, 20-30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells
How is skin classified
thick or thin based on number of strata in epidermis and relative thickness of epidermis
thin epidermis
lacks stratum lucidum, has hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
thick epidermis
all five epidermal strata, has sweat glands
commonly called a mole
yellowish or brown spots of excessive melanocyte activity
congenital anomaly that results in skin discoloration due to blood vessels that proliferate and form a benign tumor "strawberry birthmark"
friction ridge
fingerprints, toeprints, and palms
lies deep to the epidermis, connective tissue layer
papillary layer
external region of dermis directly adjacent to epidermis, dermal papillae and epidermal ridges interlock
reticular layer
deeper, major portion of the dermis, surrounds structures, fibrous network
stretch marks, skin stretches past capabilities and collagen fibers tear
lines of cleavage
identify the predominant orientation of collagen fiber bundles
blood vessels narrow when we are cold, blood must flow deeper to conserve heat away from periphery of body
blood vessels dialate, goes to superficial vessels and heat can more easily dissapate through skin, decrease in circulation to other organs
layers of integument
see table 5.2 on page 131
free edge
whitish layer of nail
nail body
pinkish part of nail
nail plate
free edge, body and root
nail matrix
actively growing part of nail
whitish, semiluminar area of the prosimal end of the nail body
a single hair
fine, unpigmented downy hair that first appears on the fetus in the last trimester
most of the lanugo has been replaced by birth by similarly fine, unpigmented or lightly pigmented hair
terminal hair
coarser, pigmented, and longer than vellus, grows on scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, pubic hair
connective tissue root sheath
originates from the dermis
epithelial root sheath
originiates from epidermis
arrector pili muscle
stimulated in response to an emotional state like fear, exposure to cold temperatures, "goose bumps" or hair standing on end
chemical signals involved in attracting members of the opposite sex
thinning of the hair
sweat gland duct
carries sweat to the surface
myoepithelial cells
in response to sympathetic nervous stimulation, contract to squeeze gland to disharge accumulated secretion
merocrine sweat glands
most numerous, makes sweat
apocrine sweat glands
coiled, tubular glands that release into hair follicles at armpit, nipples, groin, and anus
process by which sweat glands excrete
sebaceous glands
secrete oily, waxy to protect hair, bactericidal properties
ceruminous glands
modified sweat glands located only in the external ear canal to form earwax (cerumen)
mammary glands
modified apocrine sweat glands, become functional only in pregnant females
integumentary system components not reparied after damange
hair follicles, glands, nerves, and muscle cells
gives rise to epidermis
gives rise to dermis
vernix caseosa
sloughed off periderm mixed with sebum to create a protective coating for fetus' skin