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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 functions of the circulatory system
1) Transport
2) Regulation
3) Protection
Define trasport
all substances ESSENTIAL for the cellular metabolism are transported by the circulatory system
types of substances transported by the circulatory system (3)
1) Respiratory - RBC carry )2 to tissue/cell from the lungs
2)Nutritive - digestive system breaks down food (organic molecules), blood carries those molecules to the liver and tissue/cells of the body where they can be used ex.: carbs, lipids, proteins
3)Excretoty - metabolic waste, H2O and ions filtered by kidneys from blood ex.: heat, lactate, urea, water
Define regulation
blood carries hormones and other regulatory molecules that control a variety of tissue/cellular functions essential for life
define protection
protects AGAINST INJURY and FOREIGN MICROBES/TOXINS within the body (clotting mechanisms, WBC, leukocytes)
- closed system/looped: technically should not have a loss of matter/mass
missing WBC/the ability to clot
Circulatory system can be divided into 2 main components or divisions
1)Cardiovascular system
2)Lymphatic system
pump, fluid, and passageway for cardiovascular system
1) heart (flow is in L/min or mL/min)
2) blood
3) blood vessels (arteries, capilliaries, veins)
pump, fluid, and passageway for lymphatic system
1)heart (indirectly)
2) lymph
3) lymph vessels
why do lymph nodes enlarge?
b/c particles have been caught in the "filter" and WBC come to destroy these particles
how many mL in one L
1000 mL in 1 L
blood flow/cardiac output for the average person at rest
5-6 L at rest
Factors that effect how the heart pumps (2)
1) Beats per minute (60-80 beats per min)
2) Volume - stroke volume, L per beat or mL per beat. 10-80 mL per beat
equations for cardiac output
heart rate x stroke volume
(rate x volume)
At excersise cardiac output for average person, athlete, and super athlete
1) 20-25 L/min
2) 25-30 L/min
3) 30-40 L/min
Rate: 200 beats per min
Stroke Volume: 120-140 mL/beat
blood volume for the average sized individual
5 L
blood viscosity
the blood has a thickness of 4.5 to 5.5. water has a thickness of 1 hence blood IS thicker then water
blood weight (%)
8% of the total body weight
Two main types of blood
1) Arterial blood (AWAY from heart = oxygenated)
2)Venous blood (VENTURE BACK to heart = un-oxygenated)
Arterial blood:
1) oxygenated?
2) found where?
3) hemoglobin saturation?
4) color
1) yes
2) arteries and pulmonary veins
3) 97-98%
4) bright red
Venous blood:
1) oxygenated?
2) found where?
3) hemoglobin saturation?
4) color
2) veins and pulmonary artery
3) 75%
4) dark blue-ish
two main components of the blood and %
plasma (50-55%) and formed elements (45-50%)
2 components of plasma
water and solutes/particles
3 components of formed elements
ERYTHROCYTES (rbc makes up the majority)
and leukocytes (wbc) and thrombocytes (platelets)
2 factors that can cause variation in % of components of blood
H2O intake and menstartion
recirculation time for the average person at rest and for exersice
1) 1 min
2) 15 secs
relation between viscosity and stress on heart
with higher viscosity (thickness) there is more stress on the heart
Define hematocrit
% of the blood that is RBC
(45% normal male, 41-43% normal female)
define hemaglobin
protein pigment found in rbc hold on to O2
relation between, hematocrit, hemaglobin, O2
if hematocrit is down then hemaglobin is down then O2 is low
6 parts of solutes/particles found in plasma
protein, non-protein, monomeres of digestion, regulatory substances, respiratory substances, respiratory gases, electrolytes
3 types of protein
1)albumin - (60-80%)maintain blood pressure and give viscosity to the blood
2)globulins - (36%)
3)fibriogen (4% of total plasma protein)
3 parts of globulins
a-alpha globulins: transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
b-beta globulins: transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
c-gamma globulins: constitute anti-bodies of immunity
define non-protein substances
breakdown products of protein metabolism (creatine, urea, uric acid)
define monomeres of digestion
food substances from the digestive system = carbs (mono), lipids, proteins (amino acids)
examples of regulatory substances
hormones such as insulin, glucagon, ect
examples of electolytes
sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate
anatomy and physiology of erythrocytes (rbc)
(most numerous type of blood cell)[anaerobic]
-no nucleus
-no mitochondria energy derived through anaerobic metabolism
-contains hemoglobin (Hb) which functions to transport O2 and CO2 within blood
anatomy and physiology of leukocytes
(function to aid in defense against infections by micro-organisms)[aerobic]
-contain nucleus
-contain mitochondria
-can move in and out of the blood vessels (DIAPEDESIS)
types of leukocytes
a) granular - eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
b) agranular - lymphocytes, monocytes
anatomy and physiology of thrombocytes (or platelets)
(function to assist the blood clotting mechanisms)
-no nucleus
-not truly a cell but cell fragments of large cells. the phospholipid in their membrane serve to activate the clotting factors in plasma
shape of cell as it relates to function
change in cell cell means change in cell function
1985 Ryan White
got blood from blood bank, it was infected with HIV and got AIDS, no longer a "gay" stigma