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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the term central nervous system refers to the
brain and spinal cord
the ______ ___ is NOT a structural feature of a neuron.
synaptic cleft
the part of the neuron that normally recieves stimuli is called a
dendrite
a neuron whose primary function is connecting other neurons is called a
association neuron
the point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is
the synapse
the substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called a
neurotransmitter
the three major parts of the brain stem are the
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
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the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of the
autonomic nervous system
muscles and glands are
effectors
_____ __________ is NOT one of the major processes controlled by hormones
body coordination
_______ __________ are USUALLY regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.
hormone concentrations
the type of endocrine stimulus that involves changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients is
humoral stimulus
the pituitary is located in the ___ ______ of the sphenoid bone.
turk's saddle
___________ of growth hormone in adulthood leads to acromegaly
hypersecretion
an enlargement of the thyroid is called
goiter
another name for antidiuretic hormone is
vasopressin
the thyroid gland is located below the
adam's apple
the enzyme that is produced by the kidneys when blood pressure drops and that causes the release of aldosterone is
renin
____ causes a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose.
insulin
the layer of the heart wall that contains cardiac muscle tissue is the
myocardium
the atria of theheart are located superiorly and are the receiving chambers of the
heart
the ____ vein carries oxygenated blood.
pulmonary
the pacemaker of the heart is the
sinoatrial node (SA)
a heart rate that is substantially slower than the normal is called
bradycardia
when considering the lub-dub heart sounds the first sound is ____ and ____; the second sound is ____ and _____.
longer and louder; shorter and sharper
compared to an artery, the wall of a vein has a _____ middle layer
thinner
the ___ artery is located in the neck
carotid
the ___ veins empty blood into the inferior vena cava.
renal
______ veins are caused by incompetent valves
varicose
the fluid that is pushed out of the capillary beds and into the tissue spaces is
lymph
lymph node structure includes all of the following except
peyer's patches.
the lymph organ that programs T cells and functions at peak levels during youth is the
thymus
the ____ system is also called the specific defense system.
immune
compared to the nonspecific defense system, the immune system is
slower
____ is NOT one of teh cardinal signs of the inflammatory system
fever
the specific foreign substances that our immune system will be able to recognize and resist is determined by our
genes
the type of immunity that a fetus derives from its mother is
naturally acuired passive immunity
_____ provide us with artificially acquired active immunity.
vaccines
contact with poison ivy would normally lead to delayed
hypersensitivity
the conducting passageways of the respiratory system include all of the following except
alveoli
the _____ _____ is separated from the oral cavity by both the hard and soft palate.
nasal cavity
vibration that results in speech is a function of the
true vocal cords
the are three lobes of the lung ____ on the right side and ___ on the left.
one, two
gas exchange occurs by
simple diffusion
air moving into and out of the lungs is
pulmonary respiration
____ ________ is gas exchange between teh blood and tissue cells
internal respiration
the bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation of the tissues is called
cyanosis
______ is extremely slow breating
hypovenilation
______ does NOT lead to a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.
hyperventilation
food passes through the ___ ______ from mouth, pharaynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large.
alimentary canal
when full, the stomach can hold approximately __ ____ of food
4 liters
the ____ _______ extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
small intestine
the "gate keeper" of the small intestine that regulates food movement into it it the
pyloric sphincter
the primary function of the ____ ______ is food absorption.
small intestine
the number of permanent teeth in the adult dentition is
32
the sequences of steps in which large food molecules are broken down to their building blocks by enzymes is called
chemical digestion
swallowing and peristalsis both assist in
propulsion
the nutrient that is first to be chemically digested is
starch
the chemical found in the stomach needed to activate pepsinogen to pepsin in
hydrochloric acid
the _____ are aided in excretion by the lungs and skin
kidneys
the triangular regions of the kidneys that are separated by the renal columns are the
medullary pyramids
each kidney contains about ______ nephrons
1 million
most nephrons are located in the
renal cortex
____ is NOT slightly alkaline
urine
the bladder is moderately full with ____ mL of urine
500
_____ ______ is NOT a typical symptom of urinary tract infection
urinary retention
in a 24 hour period, the kidneys filter approximately _______ liters of blood plasma
150-180
the most potent of the mchanisms for regulating bood pH are the
kidneys
the average output of urine for an adult is _____ mL per day
1500
the male gonads are called
testes
an early fertilized egg that is developing in the uterius is called an
embryo
the actual "sperm forming factories" of the male reproductive system are the
seminiferous tubules
sperm gain their ability to swim while in the
epididymus
_____ from the prostate gald activate sperm
secretions
_____________ begins during puberty
spermatogenesis
the layer of the uterus that sloughs off on a monthly basis is the
endometrium
________ starts before birth
oogenesis
a female's lifetime supply of primary oocyes is
2 million
the mammary glands are modified
sweat glands