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48 Cards in this Set

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Altamira Cave
prehistoric cave paintings near Santander, about 15,000 years old; known as the Sistene Chapel of prehistoric art, currently off limits due to issues of conservation
Guanche Culture
refers to the native people of the Canary Islands, most likely from Africa, romantics say this culture is from the lost survivors of Atlantis; still existed when the Spainards took the Canaris aroun 1400
Iberians
North african peoples who migrated north to what is now known as the Iberian Peninsula; emerged as the native population of easten (costal) and southeran areas of the Peninsula; evolved into a much more open people than those living in the interior if the peninsula; today an iberian refers to he Spainards and Portugese, while an Iberian American refers to those living in either spanish of portugese speaking america
Tartessos
part fictional, part real, most likely the first true capitol of the Iberian Culture; probably located between Cadiz and Huelva, under the les Marismas swamps reasons as the swamps are essential stop for migratory birds between africa and europe, mentioned in homers odyssey`
Basques
an on going and fascinating area of ethno studies throughout spains history--hot area of study that defies ethnic and lingusitic classification
celts
probably came from central europe and dropped down into the peninsula, establishing themselves primarily in the meesta and then eventually in current galicia and parts of portugal; difficult to analyze in retrospect because they burried the dead
phoenicians
though not very violent, this culture did have some bite when needed, as seen by their defeat of Tartessos; very active and astute traders from todays lebanon, very active along the Iberian coastal areas
Gadir
modern day cadiz, founded by the phoenicians very wealthy--rich copper an silver deposits, excellent large red tuna fishing, oldest continuous city of europe
Carthage
colony of Phonecia, located in todays Libya; closed and cruel people but good at business and trade, broke off from phoenicia and made inroads towards conquering parts of Phoeenician
Greeks
referred to iberia as Hesperia; more interested in establishing trading posts than conquestsl esp active between todays Alicante/Elche stretching via Valencia up to Cataluna; systemtically planted olive groves and vinyards
Dama De Elche
Iberian sclupture unearthed near Elche of a smartly adorned Iberian woman, debate over whether she is sporting Iberian fashion
First Punic War
241 BC; Rome vs. Carthage for control of Sicily and Carthage was humiliated setting historical stage for some of the highest tension to ever take place throughout the Medit
Hannibal
after humiliating the defeat of Carthage at the hands of Rome during the 1st punic war, this crafty, smart and cruel leader of Carthage was obsessed with taking over parts of the Roman Empire he gradually obtained control of the former Phoenician colonies in southern parts of the peninsula
2nd punic war
218-201 BC--one of the most important wars in Medit. and Europen history, Hannibal moved north toward Iberian Peninsula and became more active around what is now known as Valencia
Scipio
one ofthe great heros of the roman military and italian history, roman general that defeated Hannibal in Gadir, Cartagena throughout north Africa and finally in Cartage itself, established the roman Empire to set up colonies in Iberia
Italica
Romes first true city colony in Hispania, near Sevilla, consequently, sevillions are also knows as Hispalenses
Celtiberians
the backbone of what would become the spanish and portugese peoples for most of their existence the iberaisn and celts viewed eachother with much distrust
Viriathus
lusitanian shepherd; went from country hick to the leader of the Lusitanian resistence against the romans--first national hero of portugal and to a certain degree of Spain
Numantia
a small town near present day soria, one of the dark moments of the Romanizaion of Hispania; town defied Romes best toops for months and months until with fod and water running out and Roman conquest all but assured, the numanitnos decided to give the towns children a heavy dose of alcohol and burned up their children, the town and themselves
Scipio the younger
a highly cultured, talented, and ruthless Roman general was in charge of large of Hispania, including the campagin of Numantia; was the grandson of Scipio
Seneca the Younger
The first great philosopher and the writer of Hispania, contrary to what some believe he was not Roman--though he became a personal tutor and pseech writer of the roman emperor nero
Trajan
the first roman emperor to come from the provinces, the roman empire reached its greatest georgaphical extention with him
visigoths
germanic tribes; invaded chunks of the roman empire including rome itself and eventually became a sort of ROman mercenary force to rid rome of other invadors, as their payment they were allowed to take control of romes most beloved province, hispania, which started the visigothic era of spain
leovigild
one of the great visigothic kings in terms of geo political control and conquest, frantically anti roman catholic killed his own son hermengild
reccared
upon death of the his father leovigild takes over visigothic Hispania, believiing that national unity depended on religious unity, converts to roman catholicism--the religion of Hispanias several million Hispano-romans
St. Isidore
leading intellectual figure of gothic Hispania---writer, philosoper, theologian,
Moors
invadors of Hispania that crossed over from north Africa; a mixture of Berbers and Arabs
Roderick
last visigothic king, that is, he closes he chapter of Visigothic history of spain
Al-andalus
refers to the moorish/islamic spain/portugal; the border of this geographical concept changed a lot
Pelayo
leader of rag tag band of Austrian and Visigothic survivors that is given credit for handling moorish toops their first defeat
Covadonga
a cave region in Austria where Pelayo defeated the Moors
Mozarabs
those who embraced the roman catholic faith while living in al-andalus
al-mansure
known as the victor; ruthless moorish warlord and quadi-caliph; very influential among moorish courts/leaders; led moorish troops into battle throughout virtually all of iberia
taifa
as the umaiyed dynasty began to suffer from several infighting, al-andalus broke up into about 20 tafia--small kingdoms based on divisions among berber and arab ethnic groups and/or degree of dedication to the islamic faith
fueros
a bit like the wild west, local iberities, special rules, land grants and settlements within the newly conquered christian terrirories
Rodrigo diaz de vivar
a small town near burgos; a fugure of real/epic/mythical porportions; one of the most important and fascinating figures of spanish history; an astonishing warrior-leader
1085
vital victory for christian groups as they take over the key of toledo
almoravids
a highly fanatical islamic sect from northwest africa, means "viewed as god" summoned by the moorish king of sevilla in a call for help
yusuf
the larger then life ruler of the almoravids; established their capital of marrakesh, solidified his peoples control of much of the northwest
santiago el matamoros
means saint james of moor slayer, to some a key figure of reconquest theo mythology to others a worker of battlefield miracles
knight orders
the order of calastrava
almohades
present us with a good example of division among muslims themselves; islamic fundamentalists from northwest africa and the primary rivals of the almoravvids, on one hand showed 0 tolerance for jews and christians while on the other hand were very interested in philosophy
Maimonides
from cordoba, the greatest mind to come from midevil spain jewish community
Alfonso X
known as El Sabio, called himself the Kig of three religions, as he wanted to make toledo a welcoming city for the 3 major monosethic faith
ramon lull
the greatest mind to ever come from mallorca; wrote on a vast array of subject matter
pedro de luna
one of the disputed popes of the midevil church
mudejars
these were muslims living in the reconquered christian territory, means permitted to remain, an essential labor force when it came to architecture, construction and agrigculter
treaty of alcacobaca
princess isabel of castilla was given the choice to marry either the elderly Alfonso of Portugal or fernando of argon, she chose the dashing fernando and the two were wed