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45 Cards in this Set

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Cultural Impacts of Tourism
jobs: new and lost opportunities
language
traditions
food
handicrafts
religion
dress
time
male/female relationships
conflicts b/t generations
Sacred time
Communal time not on a watch
profain time
time on a watch, measured time
Acculteration
sharing and accepting e/o cultures asnd values
demonstration effect
when locals want to look and act like tourists
commodification
when a culture/society is reduced to a generic product
ex. indian headress
psuedo-event
cultural events reprodced for the tourists with out regard to original intent
carrying capacity
destinations ability to absorb tourism with out deterioration
saturation point
point at which carrying capaity has been met
physical carrying capacity
finite capacity
ex. parking spaces at the beach
evvironmental carrying capacity
when experience of the visitor deteriorates
ecological carrying capacity
when damage to nature is unacceptable
ex. drinking water cotamination
social carrying capacity
when visitors numbers become a burden on the locals
What are the most popular three cruise destinations?
Caribbean, European, and Alaskan
What are the three major companies in the Cruise industry?
Carnival (costa, cunard, hollan america, windstar and yachts of seabourne)
Royal Caribbean (celebrity and princess)
NCL (star and orient)
What are the five principals of ecotourism?
1. tourism should bond with thoe local culture and environment
2. tourists should focus on the hosts community
3.ecotourism should be local ownership
4. should use local materials
5. use ecotechniques
What are three core elements of ecotourism?
1. attraction of the natural environment
2. emphasis on learning
3. high desire for sustainability on the people of the region and the natural surrounding
Hardcore ecotourism event
rugged uncomfortable
Softcore ecotourism event
short duration trips with an eco theme
Negative Cultural Impacts of Tourism
loss of self-sustaining economy
outside ownership of facilities
impact on real estate
overcrowding
social problems
loss of amenities for locals
Leisure Travel?
Increased levels of economic activity will lead to a growth in leisure travel
Impact of lesiure travel
more leisure travelers will lead to developement of facilities
developed countries will stick to mass tourism
What will become the two biggest countries for inbound tourism?
China and India
many VFR travelers will visit to see relatives left behind
Gross Registered Tonnage
interior space avaliable to passangers
1 GRT = 100 Cubic feet
Space Ratio
GRT/ # PAX Berths
Passenger Crew Ratio
# Pax Berths / # Crew
Future of the Cruise Industry
1. condoships and timeshares
2. bigger ships
3. budget cruises
4. private islands and clubs
Jones Act
Inorder to have an all domestic itinerary the ship must: 1. be made in the US; 2. be owned by a US company; 3. have and all US crew
Why the Jones Act?
1. protect US jobs
2. ensures safety for passangers
3. environmental protections
4.national security
Eco-tourism
sustainable, alternative and responsible tourism
Mass Tourism
seeks rest and relaxation
involves large #'s
visitors consume resources
dictates the community
One of the biggest changes that will occur in the 21st century...
will be the increasing number of the mature travel segment
diffusion
tourist and locals interact and borrow from each other
toleration
live and let live with out interaction
segregation
dont make contact: maintain distance
rejection
make tourists unwelcome
Bruntland Report definition of Ecotourism
meeting the needs of present tourist and host region, while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future
Doxey's Irritaion Index: cultural irritation
1. euphoria
2. apathy
3. annoyance
4. antagonism
5. final level: segregation and elimentation
Variables impacting irritation
negative correlation: land mass
positive: culutral and socioeconomic disparity
positive: level of dependency on tourism
negative: % of population benefiting
Future Trends of Tourism
video conferencing
mass customization
extreme tourism
Ecotourism: does it work?
In order for eco-tourism to make and impact everyone must participate but if all the people do it it cannot work
Plog's Continuum
psychocentric - Near psych - midcentric- near allocentric- allocentric
psychocentric
want familiarity rather than anxious and willing to relinquish control
allocentric
adventurous; self-confident; want to be incontrol
Theory of allocentricity and psychocentricity
1. territory boundness
2. generalized anxieties
3. sense of powerlessness