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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is John Winthrop?
Author of the phrase "The City on the Hill"
-Dealt with American exceptionalism
Ezra Stiles
-Reverend, supporter of Revolution
-Proclaimed God created American exceptionalism
Why do Americans regard themeselves as special?
Civil, Religious liberty
Thomas Paine
1776, Common Sense
o Time for American to separate from Europe
o Explained why America needed to revolt
• Gordon Wood
Wrote book on the radicalism of the American Revolution
• Edmund Burke
-British Parliament member who claimed the American revolution was conservative
-The Blessings of Liberty was the ideological platform that Americans fought for—not specific enough
• First Challenge of the Founders:
To define American (as special)
• Defining elements of the new country
Outbreak from Taxing revolt
Unity-Separation from Europe
Commercial Diplomacy
• Robert Walpole
Keep free from engagement as long as possible
British Prime Minister
• Second Challenge:
Define Foreign Policy
o XYZ Affair
 1797 diplomatic episode that worsened relations between the United States and France
o Alien and Sedition Act-Result of the XYZ Affair
Limited the number of foreigners
Made it illegal to dissent against government
• Third Challenge
o Freedom of the Seas, Neutrality Rights
• 4th Challenge
o Latin American Revolution
• Monroe Doctrine
Proclaimed European powers should not colonize
• Jay Treaty
Between US and Britain
• The Great Rule
No entangling alliances
• Three Point of Monroe Doctrine
o No new colonization
o No transfer of existing colonies
o No imposition of colonial rules
• Frederick Jackson Turner
The Significance of the Frontier in American History
• Put into American terms the obsession with Expansionism
John O’Sullivan
• Manifest Destiny
• Manifest Destiny
• Expansion necessary if US intended to remain free and independent
• To pursue unilateralism
• Unilateralism must produce an American system of states
• Albert K. Winberg
8 points to justify expansionism
8 points to justify expansionism
1. Natural Right – God’s Will
2. Geograhpical Predestination
3. Natural Growth
4. America will gradually take over lands nature assigned to them
5. Due to virtuous industry
6. American growth=strengthens liberty
7. Manifest Destiny
8. Radical Manifest Destinarians
• Three Major Themes American Foregin Policy Late 19th Century
• Frontier Thesis- Frederick Jackson Turner
• Social Darwinism-Herbert Spencer
• Manifest Destiny
• George F. Kennen
• The father of the containment policy
• Foraker Act 1900-Puerto Rico
• established civilian (limited popular) government on the island
• Legal for US to control, but people do not have constitutional protection
• Organic Act 1902
• Truman Doctrine
o An American foreign policy designed to contain Communism by giving Greece and Turkey economic aid.
• NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
o establishes a system of collective security whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party
o Europeans terrified to live under threat of Russia
• Marshall Plan
o The primary plan of the United States for rebuilding the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism after World War II.
Spanish American War
• US, Cuba, Spain, Philippines –Combatants
• Maximo Gomez
Cuba’s military general in war for independence
• The Pact of Zanjón
Treaty ended Cuban Ten Year War
• McKinley Tariff of 1890
o Opened American market to foreign sugars and subsidized domestic producers
• Wilson-Garman Tariff Act
o Reduced rates set in 1890 McKinley tariff
• Captain Valeriano Weyler
Spanish Soldier
Established Concentration Camps
Separate population from natural areas
Approximately 200,000 Cubans died in camps
Attempt by Spanish to “quarantine to enemy”
• De Lome Letter
wrote disparagingly of US President William McKinley
• William Randolph Hearst
o Yellow Journalism
• Sinking of the USS Maine
o An explosion sank the American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor with a loss of 266 men. Evidence as to the cause of the explosion was inconclusive and contradictory. It may have been an accident, or caused by a Spanish or Cuban mine.
• Paris Peace Conference
o McKinley brought bi-partisan group
o Cuban debt would be absorbed by Spain
o US annexed Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
o Emilio Aguinaldo
Led revolt of indigenous Philippines against America
• Alfred Thayer Mahan
o The Influence of Sea Power upon History: 1660
o Justified dramatic increase in naval force
• Henry Cabot Lodge
o led the successful fight against American participation in the League of Nations
• George Frisbie Hoar
o Critic of new American Imperialism—shown in the Spanish-American war
• American Anti-Imperialist League
o Against taking of Philippines
• William Howard Taft
o Appointed first colonial civilian governor of Philippines
• Insular Cases
"Does the Constitution follow the flag?" Essentially, the Supreme Court said that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.
• Jones Act
o Ensure Imperialism in Philippines would not be permanent
• John Bassett Moore
o 1st US judge to serve on the International Court of Justice
• Open Door Policy
US maintains status quo, did not want territorial possession, just opportunity for trade
• Open Door Memo stressed
o Commercial freedom
o Preserve Chinese administrative integrity and territory
o Free trade and Competition
• Boxer rebellion
o Turmoil amongst Chinese against China being controlled by foreign powers and influence
o Another sign of failing Qing Dynasty
Russo-Japanese War
1st time European country had lost to Asian country
• Treaty of Portsmouth
o Peace treaty ending Russo-Japanese War
o Teddy Roosevelt moderated—won Nobel Peace Price in 1906 for
• Taft -Katsura Agreement
o US recognized Japan’s dominant position in Korea if they recognized US control over Philippines
• Root-Takahira Agreement
o US recognized Pacific status quo
• Lansing-Ishii Agreement
o US recognized Japan’s position in Asia
o Japan took Pacific Islands previously held by Germany
o US claimed it was a “thank you” for their help in WWI
• Shantung Providence
given to Japan for their help in WWI
• League of Nations committee brought up the issue of racial equality
o William Hughes-Australian Prime Minister and Lord Robert Cecil-Britain voted against having racial equality
• Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
o Signed in 1850 by US and UK
o Agreement that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American Republic
Ferdinand de Lesseps
o French diplomat and maker of Suez Canal
o Wanted to repeat his success and build a lockless version
• Philippe Bunau-Varilla
o Wanted to think of a reason to separate Panama from Colombia
o Engineered a phony revolution in Panama
Two treaties passed dealing with canal
o Joint Control until end of 1999
o Neutrality Treaty—US would immediately take control of Canal if War/Conflict broke out
• Roosevelt Corollary 1904
o President Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine in which he asserted the right of the United States to intervene in Latin American nations.
o Daniel Ortega
• Haiti
Dr. Francios Duvielicz-“Popa Doc”
^Son, Jean-Claude—“Baby Doc”
• Key role in upgrading US navy
o Philander Knox
o William Sims
o *Alfred T Mahan *
• Roosevelt vs. Woodrow Wilson
o Balance of Power vs. Rule of Law
o Roosevelt—Realist, Wilson—Legal Framework
• Theodore Roosevelt wanted to “flex the American muscle”
o Sent White fleet around the world—14 month tour
o Franz Ferdinand
(Archduke of Austria)
Assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
• Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
o Led US to join war
o A type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning
• Sinking of the Lusitaniana
o British ocean liner that held weapons and explosives
• Zimmerman Telegram
o Instructed ambassador to approach the Mexican government with a proposal to form military alliance against the US
Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson (US)
David Lloyd George (Britain)
George Clemenceau (France)
Vitoria Orlando (Italy)
• Known as “Big 4”
• Charles Coughlin
o Catholic Priest/radio journalist
o Nervous about Roosevelt dealings
o Turned on FDR, saying he wasn’t liberal enough
o Dawes Plan
American banker cam up with idea to reconstruct debt payment
o Young Plan—1929
Reduced reparation payment to $9 billion
o 1934—US Johnson Debt Default Act
Countries that defaulted on loans will not be given new loans
• Kellogg-Briand Pact
o Secretary of State—Frank Kellogg
o Briand—French Prime Minister
o “Providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy”
o Made War Illegal
• Washington Naval Conference
o Dealt w/ Naval Disarmament
• 5-5-3-1.75-1.75
• US, Great Brittan, Japan, France Italy
• London Naval Conference
o Dealt with use of submarines
• 1921-1941 THEMES
o Disarmament—Proved weak in maintaining peace
o League Membership probably would not have prevented WWII
o Framework of International Law would not secure peace
o US learned hard lessons about global responsibilities
o Isolationism as form of peace was not good enough
• Hideki Tojo
o General in Imperialist Japanese Army
o Prime Minister of Japan prior to Pearl Harbor
• Anschluss
o Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by Nazi Regime
• Munich Agreement
o The settlement gave Germany the Sudetenland starting and de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised to go no further.
• William Edgar Borah
o Proclaimed there wouldn’t be a war
o "The Lion of Idaho."
• Lend-Lease
o US supplied Great Britain , USSR, China, France, etc. with vast amounts of war material between 1941-1945
• Gerald Nye
Nye headed an investigation of the munitions industry
• Burke-Wadsworth Act 1940
o First Peace time draft, men 21-35 registered
• The Atlantic Charter—1941
o Roosevelt/Churchill—Joint declaration on the purposed of war against Fascism