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193 Cards in this Set

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When and what countries blocked Venezuelan ports because of the government's failure to meet its debts?
In 1902. Great Britain, France, and German.
What was the result of the blockage?
Negotiations took place in Washington and it was ruled that Venezuela had to meet its obligations with the three powers.
Cipriano Castro
The first dictator of Venenzuela. Brutal & corrupt.
Juan Vicente Gomez
Ruled Venenzuela after Castro. Reversed Castro's foreign policy. Harsh ruling. Paid off foreign debts.
Eleazar Lopez Contreras
Ruled Venenzuela after Gomez's natural death. Killed many who were rumored to be communist. Freedom of the press.
Isaias Medina Angarita
Ruled in Venenzuela. Overthrew Contreras. Was overthrown himself.
Accion Democratica
Venenzuela. Leaders were civilians. Moderately socialist. Assumed by means of the secret ballot. Accused of being communist.
Romulo Gallegas Freire
Novelist and founder of the AD in Venenzuela. Took office after the first honest election. Kept senators from treasury and reduced their pay.
Group in Venenzuela that suppressed the opposition and employed other dictatorial methods, including censorship of news.
Marcos Perez Jimenez
Took office in Venenzuela after Flamerich. Brutal. Schools were stripped of teachers with independent minds. Closed university of Caracas. Eisenhower gave him an award. New constitution. Broke off diplomatic relations with Argentina. Uprising. Patriotic Junta seized control. Jimenez left to Miami as a result of a military coup.
Romulo Betancourt
Ruled Venenzuela during JFK. Two terms. Constitutional provisions. Took land from large landholders and gave to the landless. Bomb exploded next to his car.
Raul Leoni
Ruled Venenzuela. From AD. Formed a coalition government. Political stability.
Rafael Caldera Rodriquez.
Ruled Venenzuela for two terms. Leader of COPEI. Ruling party peacefully handed over power. Governed effectively and virtualy eliminated the guerilla and terrorist activities. Pursued nationalizing foreign enterprises. In his second term, energized economic growth. He eased price controls and encouraged foreign investment in the pertroleum industry.
Carlos Andres Perez
Ruled Venenzuela for two terms. Leader of the center-left AD. Wanted to improve relations with neighbors but stand independently away from the US. Open hostility toward Chile. Resumed diplomatic relations with Cuba. Nationalized iron, steel, and oil. Received emergency loans from the US to ease the affects of consumer price increases. Suspended from office after senate voted to have him stand trial on charges of embezzlement and misuse of public funds.
Luis Herrera Campins
Ruled Venenzuela. Oil exports weakened. Settled some boundary disputes.
Jaime Lusinchi
Ruled Venenzuela.
Hugo Chavez
Left wing. Leader of first rebellion. AKA "El Comandante". Captured & sent to prison. Retired from the military & formed his own political party, the Fifth Republic Movement. Campaigned as a populist and won presidency in 1998. Wanted constitutional changes that would increase the powers of the presidency and the military. Adoption of a new constitution. Re-elected in 2000 for a 6-year term. Began to implement a program of social and economic reform, including restrictions on foreign ownership. Government seize of privately owned lands and distributed to landless peasants. Antagonized the U.S. by pursuing close relations with Cuba. Refused to let U.S. in their airspace. Met with Saddam Hussein. Supported strict adherence to OPEC production quotas in order to drive up the price of crude oil. People marched against Chavez and gunfire erupted.Pressured to resign. Chavez supporters raided the streets. The coup crumbled. Chavez was restored to presidency.
Why did the US intervene in Columbia in 1903?
The Columbian senate refused to accept the Hay-Herran Treaty that gave the US a strip of the Panama canal.
What was the result of the US intervention in Panama?
Panama became an independent state.
Enrique Olaya Herrera
President of Colombia. Settled some boundary disputes. Ammendments to constitution. Power to regulate privately owned property in the national interest. Right for workers to strike. Disestablishment the Roman Catholic church. Secularized public education. Minimum wage scales, paid vacations and holidays, accident and sickness benefit.
Alfonso Lopez Pumerejo
President of Colombia. Declared war against Germany. Became member of the UN.
Jorge Eliecer Gaitan
Liberal party leader. Assasinated. This provoked an uprise against Conservative government known as "La Violencia". Called for a socialist utopia.
Laureano Gomez
Colombian president. Conservative. Extreme right winger. Newspaper editor. Guerrilla bands in action. A State of siege. Civil war. Admired Hitler. Disliked the US. Did not allow Non Catholics to practice. Military coup. Gomez fled to Spain.
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
Colombian president. Killed anybody not holding a support banner. Military coup. Resigned.
National Front.
Liberal-Conservative coalition in Colombia. Brought some stability. Defeated challenge brought by Pinilla.
Julio Turbay Ayala
Liberal Colombian president.
Belisario Betancur Cuartas
President of Colombia. Former minister of labor. Pardoned guerillas. Truce between both. Crackdown on drug traffic.
Virgilio Barco Vargas
Liberal president of Colombia. Big drug bust.
Cesar Gaviria Trujillo.
Liberal president of Colombia. Offered amnesty to drug traffickers who turned themselves in.
Ernesto Samper Pizano
Liberal president of Colombia. Charged with corruption & fraud. US refused to give Colombia economic assistance because they did not cooperate in the antidrug effort.
Andres Pastrana Arango
President of Colombia. Withdrew government troops and put in the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Got financial assistance from US to fight cocaine trade.
Alvaro Uribe Velez
Current president of Colombia. American educated.
Gabriel Garcia Moreno
Leader of the Conservative party in Ecuador.
Eloy Alfaro
President in Ecuador. Served two terms.
Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Rio
Liberal president in Ecuador. Let the US build a base on the Galapago Islands.
Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra
President in Ecuador. Served five terms. "Personalismo". Great speaker. Created his own political party. A professor of law. Fascist. Closed down newspapers because he believed they were communist. Was sent into exile.
What is the percentage of Indiams in Ecuador?
What has happened to Ecuador since their independence?
They have lost half of their national territory.
What are Ecuador's current resources?
Natural gas & oil.
Galo Plaza Lasso
President of Ecuador. Fair election. Former ambassador to the US. Dealt with border disputes with Peru. Pro-US. Educated in Caliornia. Balance the budget. Army revolts stayed in power. Freedom in the media.
Camilo Ponce Enriquez
President in Ecuador.Fair election.
Carlos Julio Arosemena
President in Ecuador. Would trade with the devil if he had money. Fired leftist officials. Broke diplomatic relations with Cuba. Drunk at the White House. Overthrown by a military junta.
Guillermo Rodriquez Lara
President of Ecuador after he lead coup on Velasco. Economic plan stressing agriculture, housing, and industry. Exported petroleum. This spurred inflation and increased the gap between the rich and poor.
What is the percentage of Indians in Peru?
Augusto P. Leguia
President of Peru. Instituted a program for economic reform. Learned methods of banking and finance in the US and Great Britain. Banned APRA. Settled treaty with Chile.
Victor Raul Haya de la Torre
Peru. Led American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), which called for improved conditions for Indians, during Leguia's rule. Called for united front of workers and intellectuals. Called for internationalism of the Panaman Canal, which meant to take it away from the US. Believed to be a communist.
Manuel Gonzalez Prado
President of Peru. Swept liberal reforms. Hampered with strikes and riots. Economic instability and runaway inflation.
Jose Mariategi
Writer in Peru. Believed in Indigenismo. Looked at Inca Empire as a model society. Anti-imperialist. Anti-US.
Luise Sanchez Cerro
President of Peru who was asssasinated.
Oscar Benavidez
President of Peru. Harsh political rule combined with marked economic advances.
Jose Luis Bustamante
President of Peru. Liberal and leftist. Civil rights. Freedom of press. Abolished some dictatorial powers of the president by constitutional amendment.
Manuel A. Odria
President of Peru. Strengthened Peru's defense. Initiated a large public-works program. Concluded a series of economic and cultural pacts with Brazil. Extended the country's territorial waters. This brought protest from the US.
Fernando Belaunde Terry
President of Peru. Political opposition grew. Increasing inflation resulted in devaluation of currency.Settled petroleum dispute with the US. Peruvians upset and ousted him.
Juan Velasco Alvarado
President of the military junta in Peru after Terry. Left wing. Expropriated petroleum company (IPC) assets. Strained US relations. Seized foreign-owned ranchlands. Taken out by a military coup.
Francisco Morales Bermudez
President of Peru. Former prime minister and minister of war under Velasco. Announced back to Democratic rule.
Alan Garcia
President of Peru. Left-wing. Refused to pay debts. Economy went to shambles.
Sendero Luminoso
A leftist guerrilla group in Peru. Led by Abimael Guzman. Killed Indiams. Terrorized countrysides.
Mario Vargas Llosa
President of Peru after Garcia.
Alberto Fujimori
President of Peru. Two terms. Agricultural economist of Japanese descent. Imposed a program to deal with the hyperinflation and to restore Peru's ability to borrow money internationally. Dissolved Congress. Wife ran against him. Investigated for stealing and bribes. Forced to resign.
Alejandro Toledo
President of Peru. First full blooded Indian president. Liked by the US.
What is the percentage of Indians in Bolivia?
Is Bolivia volatile?
Yes; 200 or more regime changes.
War of the Pacific
Chile against Peru and Bolivia. Disputed over land that was granted to Chile. Chile won the war. Bolivia lost its only seacoast.
What other countries did Bolivia have territorial disputes with?
Argentina, Peru, and Paraguay.
Chaco War
Between Bolivia and Paraguay. Territorial dispute. Result was Bolivia got one-fourth of the region.
Movimiento Nacionlista Revolucionario (MNR)
Reformist party in Bolivia.
Victor Pax Estenssoro
President of Bolivia. Leader of MNR. Drop in tin prices due to inflation. Overthrown as a result of an uprising by miners.
Hugo Banzer Suarez
Ruled in Bolivia. Full military control. Stepped down for civilian government.
Carlos Mesa
President of Bolivia. Former journalist and historian. Political independent. Forced to resign.
What is Chile wealthy in?
Arturo Alessandri Palma
President of Chile. Liberal. "Personalismo". Military drove him out but he later returned.
Carlos Ibanez del Campo
President of Chile. Right wing.
Jorge Alessandri Rodriquez
President of Chile. Former senator. Son of former president Palma. Favored free enterprise, foreign investment, tax reform, building projects, and agrarian reform. Broke diplomatic relations with Cuba but resummed ties with USSR.
Salvador Allende Gossens
Non-communist Marxist. Elected presdient of Chile on his third try. State control of basic industries, banks, and communications. Land reform. Redistributed income, raised wages, and controlled prices. Turned country toward socialism. Result was severe economic problems. Skyrocketing prices, food shortages (caused by the drying up of foreign credits), strikes, political violence. US wanted to get rid of him. Military seized power and Allende was killed.
Augusto Pinochet
Headed military junta in Chile. Right wing. Horrible regime. Brutal military dictatorship. Suspended the constitution, dissolved Congress, inposed strict censorship, and banned all political parties. Campaign of terror on leftist. Many arrested, exiled, tortured, and killed. Slashed inflation. Stimulated production. Declining copper prices. Uprisings made Pinochet reimpose a state of siege. Still had military control even when no longer president. Was going to stand trial but he was too old.
Michelle Bachelet
President of Chile. First female president. Socialist. Former minister of defense.
"Noventa" 1890
Italian uprising.
La Union Civica de la Juventud
Led by Alem. Fought over political power.
Juarez Celman
Fighting over political power. Resigned.
Carlos Pellegrini
Italian. Arranged to pay off debts. Wealthy estanciero. Denounced public thieves.
Luis Saenz Pena
Manipulated election. Resigned and committed suicide.
Hipolito Irigoyen
"The Armadillo". Little education. Spiritualist. Withdrawn from reality. Arogant. Alienated other leaders. Gave his salary to the poor. Never married but fathered a child. Demanded obedience. Did not keep a good eye on treasury. Many stole money. His office was always open to the poor. Gave government jobs to the poor. Prosperity in Argentina. Unbalanced budget. Hated unions. Had army fire on unions when they did not do as he said.
Luis Maria Drago
"The Drago Doctrine" stated that foreign debt does not give European states the right to intervene.
Saenz Pena Law
Gave males 18 and over the right to vote. Secret and obligatory voting.
Jose F. Uriburu
During Depression cut back government spending.
Augustin P. Justo
President of Argentina. Rich man. Skillful public servant. Gentlemanly dictatorship. Corruption was confined. Improved foreign relations. Got Argentina out of the Depression before anybody else in Latin America. Political turbulence.
Leandro N. Alem
Argentina. Led the Union Civica Radical.
Union Civica Radical
Argentina. Founded by intransigent leaders. Revolted because they wanted some political direction in their society.
Bartolome Mitre
President of Argentina. Headed rebel group who protested against the new confederation. Rebels defeated the national army.
Julio A. Roca
President of Argentina. Directed the War of the Desert, which opened up vast new areas for grazing and farming. Settled boundary issues with Brazil.
Luis Saenz Pena
Juan B. Justo
Lisandro de la Torre
Radical Party
Argentina. Made-up of middle class immigrants.
Democratic Progressive Party
Luis Maria Drago
"The Drago Doctrine"
Argentina. Similar to Monroe Doctrine. Stated that public/foreign debts does not give European countries the right to intervene.
Manuel Quintara
Figueroa Alcorta
Roque Saenz Pena
President of Argentina. Universal male suffrage. Saw labor organizers and the working class to be the real threat
"Gente Decente"
La Prensa
Argentina. A leading independent daily newspaper was suppressed. Congress later approved the expropriation of the newspaper.
La Nacion
Marcelo T. Alvear
President of Argentina.
Jose F. Uriburu
Argentina. Led a faction. Wanted a semifascist corporate state. He saw the problems was trying to turn Wanted a "functional democracy".
Augustin P. Justo
President of Argentina. Led a faction. Wanted oligarchical system. Created a pro-government coalition of parties called the Concordancia. Replaced a number of military men in sensitive posts with well-known politicians in order to deal with the depression.
Carlos Saavedra Llamas
Roberto M. Ortiz
President of Argentina. Chosen by Justo. Elected in corrupt election. Trader to his class. Led Radical Party. Took vigorous steps to strengthen democracy. Was forced to resign due to illness.
Ramon S. Castillo
President of Argentina. Conservative. Stuffed ballot box. In favor of Axis in WWII. Removed by military group.
Enrique Ruiz Guinazu
Accion Argentina
La Junta de la Victoria
Bishop Miguel de Andrea
Rio Conference
Juan Peron
President of Argentina. Rose to power with the support of "Desamisados". Forced to resign. Increased officers pay. Complied with Catholic church at first. Wanted the economy to be independent from the US and Europe. Rationalized sugar and cigars.Peron began to have problems with the Catholic church Made divorce and prostitution legal.
General Arturo Rawson
Argentina. Headed military group that overthrew Castillo. Favored severance of relations with Germany and Japan. Was forced to resign.
General Pedro Ramirez
Argentina. Provisional president. Leader of a revolt. Abolished all political parties. Suppressed opposition newspapers. Broke diplomatic relations with Japan and Germany. Military forced him out because they feared war with Germany.
Martinez Zuviria "Hugo Vast"
Argentina. Author. Wrote anti-foreigner work. Anti-communist.
Alfredo Palacios
Cordell Hull
Edelmiro Farrell
Grupo de Officiales Unidos (G.O.U.)
Argentina. Made up of ambitious officers who wanted to restructure the entire political structure. Dissolved Congress. Wanted to get rid of political parties.
Maria Eva Duarte ("Evita" Peron)
Argentina. Wife of President Peron. Rallied for husband. Looked upon as a saint by the poor. Disliked the upper class. Took control of all charity. Conducted many health promoting programs. Organized labor. Workers comp. & vacation time.
Eva Peron Foundation
Supruille Braden "o Braden o Peron"
George Messersmith
Argentina. Peron's philosophy.
General Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
Provisional president of Argentina. Cracked down on Peronists. Restored the liberal charter. Murdered by Peronists.
Arturo Frondizi
President of Argentina. Leftist Intransigent Radical party. Representative government was restored. Economic stability. Received a lot of loans. Was kept under house arrest. Military overthrew him.
Dr. Arturo Illia
President of Argentina. Moderate of the People's Radical Party. Regulated foreign investment. Tried to control rising prices, shortages, and labor unrest by fixing prices and setting minimum-wage laws.
General Juan Carlos Ongania
Argentina. General who wanted to implement a bureaucratic-authoritarian state. Shut down congress. Ousted opponents from the universities. Got rid of politicians from positions of authority, the military leaders forged alliances with technocrats and foreign investors, whose capital was sought to spur economic growth. Suppression of the labor movement. Two-year wage freeze. Antigovernment protests and labor stoppages. Torture and executions by government. Political failure.
General Alejandro Lanusse
President of Argentina. Attempted to hold down inflation. Scheduled national elections. Country became torn by violence, including strikes, student riots, and terrorist activities.
"The Great National Accord"
Jose Lopez Rega
Argentina. "Isabelita's" minister and social welfare. An ambitious and bizarre figure. Right-wing Peronist views.
General Jorge Rafael Videla
Argentina. Led military junta that overthrew "Isabelita". Dissolved the legislature, imposed martial law, and ruled by decree. Launched a terror campaign.
General Leopoldo Fortunato Galteri
President in Argentina. Occupied the British-held Falkland Islands.
Faulkland Islands (Malvinas War)
Argentina. Big mistake. Argentina forcefully occupied the British-held Falkland Islands. A brief war. Great Britain recaptured the islands.
Carlos Saul Menem
President of Argentina. Peronist. Pardoned many leaders of military regime. Curbed inflation, balanced budget, sold off state enterprises to private investors, and rescheduled the nation's debts to commercial banks.
Nester Kirchner
Argentina. Leftist. Did not think about paying back foreign debt. Won after opponent (Menem) dropped out.
War of the Triple Alliance
Paraguay. War against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Half of the population was killed. Devastated economy. Agricultural activity was at standstill. Great territorial losses.
Alfredo Stroessner
Paraguay. Commander in chief of the army and head of the Colorado party. Severed Cuban relation. Formed close economic relations with neighboring countries. Forced out through a military coup.
Carlos Rodriquez
Paraguay. Democracy.
What is the majority in Paraguay?
95% Mestizzo. Speak Spanishand Guarani (Indian)
Jose Batle y Ordonez
President of Uruguay. Socialist. Colorado. Uruguay was known as the most progressive nation in South America. Greatly influenced politics. Founded newspaper. A crusader. Constitutionalist. New constitution. Limited president's power. Free suffrage. Church and state seperate w/o conflict. Pro-labor. Created old-age pension, Social Security system. High tariffs. Purchased railroads from Britain.
Colorado (Liberal) Party
Uruguay. Aided by Brazil and anti-Argentine forces. Retained control almost continuously. Proponents of advanced social legislation.
Uruguay. Congress made up of 9 members. Each in charge of an area (social service, education, etc.)Was did away in 1966 election.
Gabriel Terra
President of Uruguay. Mild dictorial rule. Demanded for the constitution to be ammended to allow the president wider powers. This brought threats of revolution. A new constitution was drawn by an assembly.
Alfredo Baldomir
President of Uruguay. Similar to Peron. Price of wood crashed. Welfare program drained budget.
Blanco (Conservative)Party
Uruguay. Aided by Argentine forces. Attracted the rural population and the clergy.
Jose Enrique Rodo
Uruguay.Wrote Ariel which stated that Latin Culture was better than U.S. because the U.S. was too materialistic and Latin America was more spiritual.
Luis Alberto Herrera
Uruguay. Leader of the Blancos.
Military Rule
Uruguay. 1972-1985
Uruguay. Left-wing political party. Frustrated labor workers. They seized radio stations and kidnapped political members.
Juan Jose Amezaga
Uruguay. Contemporary Peron.
Empire of Brazil
First Republic
Brazil. Brought upon by a military coup against empire. Shift in the center of the country. "Positivism" runned by scientific professionals.
Deodoro da Foseca
President of Brazil. Liberal. Seperated church and state. Army expanded. Forced to resign due to corruption and public out cry.
Floriano Peixoto
President of Brazil. Reign of terror. Used censorship, martial law, and executions.
Ruy Barbosa
President of Brazil. Printed more money which increased inflation. Credit decreased. Wants a fair election and found a political party called the "Civilistas".
Prudente Jose de Moraes Barros
President of Brazil. Reorganized national treasury.
Canudos Revolt
Brazil. Religious cult. Reported healing experiences. Attacked Canudos.
Euclides de Cunha Os Sertoes
Baron of Rio Branco
Brazil. Minister of foreign affairs. Recognized the use of the Monroe Doctrine.
Hermes de Fonseca
President of Brazil. Ruled in dictorial fashion. Small states experienced bitter battles within the political elite.
Wenceslau Braz Pereira
President of Brazil. Printed more money to deal with foreign debt. Proclaimed war on Germany. Brazil fed hungry Europe during WWI. Brazil joined League of Nations.
Epitacio de Silva Pessoa
President of Brazil. Received loans from US.
Arthur de Silva Bernardes
Luis Carlos Prestes
Brazil. Led Communist Party.
Prestes Column
Brazil. Propaganda for communism.
Washington Luiz Pereira de Souza
President of Brazil.Guranteed convertibility of the Brazillian currency into gold or British sterling. Results were a deepening balance-of-payments crisis, and the coffee growers were stuck with an unsellable harvest.
Getulio Vargas
President of Brazil after military installed him. Smooth dictatorship. Lawyer. Congressman. Had states against each other. Inspired confidence. National loyalty, not state. Print censorship. Put his men in official positions. Eliminated internal tariffs. Limited coffee production to raise the price. Provoked a three month civil war. No executions. Brazilians demanded a legal government. New constitution that gave the president more power. Allowed women to vote. Foreign capital. Overthrown by Integralistas. Output increased
Labor Party.
"O pai do povo"
Social Democratic Party.
Eurico Dutra
President of Brazil. Former minister of war. Decentralization. Individual liberty. Communism legalized. Focused on coffee exports and not on the growth of communist groups. Freedom of the press. Foreign trade increased inflation. Took over foreign railroads. Built highways.
"Queremos Getulio"
Adolpf Berle
Brazil. US ambassador.
Benjamin Vargas "O Beijo"
President of Brazil. Graft, prostitution, & gambling. Unsuccessful economy. Forced to resign.
Second Republic
Brazil. Mixed public-private corporation that would monopolize the exploration and production of oil. Proposed by Vargas. Created much debate.
Juscelino Kubitshek
President of Brazil. Power was through transportation and food. Moved the capital to the center of Brazil. Economic problems.
Janio Quadros
President of Brazil. Stopped printing money. Focused on eliminating corruption. Suddenly resigned.
Joao "Jango" Goulart
President of Brazil. Leftist. Unexperienced, weak, and indecisive. Reduction Not in good terms with US. Huge inflation. Overthrown by a military coup supported by the US.
Ignacio Lula de Silva
Present president of Brazil.