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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Tissue which covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms glands.
Epithelial Tissue
Tissue comprised of cells that produce ECM and serve to link or support other tissues.
CT or Supporting Tissue
Tissue comprised of cells with contractile properties.
Muscle tissue
Cells which produce male & female gametes (spermatozoa & ova) through gametogenesis.
Germ cells
Malignancies of epithelium
Malignancies of glandular tissue
Malignancies of mesenchymal tissue
Tumors of germ cells
Germ cell tumors
Layers of flat or polygonal cells; Serves a protective function against the external environment; Covers external genitalia & lines the vagina & cervix of women.
Squamous epithelium
Cuboidal or columnar cells; Forms inner lining of many organs; Has ability to produce fluid secretions
Glandular epithelium
Male accessory glands & prostate; Female endometrium, endocervix, and fallopian tubes
Glandular epithelium
Form of epithelium that lines the urinary tract (renal calyces, ureters, bladder, urethra); Can distend
Transitional epithelium
Epithelial tumors confined by an intact basement membrane
In-situ carcinoma
When does in-situ carcinoma become invasive carcinoma?
When the malignant cells cross the BM & invade into underlying CT
Found between the epithelium & underlying CT; Acts to support epithelium
Basement membrane
What are the 4 components of the BM?
Basal lamina derived from basal lamina (TIV collagen & laminin (glycoprotein)), reticular fibers, other glycoproteins
Tissue found under BM; Female: stroma of vagina, cervix, endometrium, ovary & breast, uterine myometrium; Male: stroma of penis, prosate, testes
Mesenchymal tissue
List 4 tumors of mesenchymal tissue
Leiomyomas, Leiomyosarcomas, fibromas, fibrosarcomas
Site of milk production; Found at the end of large ducts of the breast; Includes small ductules & lobules
TDLU (Terminal Duct Lobular Unit)
In the breast, __ __ __ units proliferate at puberty & pregnancy. In pregnancy, lobules __ & __ changes are seen in glandular cells. Breast __ also proliferate.
Terminal duct lobular; enlarge; secretory; stroma
How is the low pH of the vagina achieved?
Vaginal mucosa is lined by a thick, stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium. The epithelium is hormonally responsive. It produces and stores glycogen in the presence of estrogen. The glycogen is metabolized by the nl vaginal flora, forming lactic H+, resulting in the low pH in the vagina.
From where do vaginal secretions arise?
There is a CT stroma underlying the vaginal epithelium that has a rich vascular supply. The vaginal secretions arise as an exudate from the vaginal capillaries.
The stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix changes to a mucus-secreting glandular epithelium at the __ zone, where the endocervix begins. The glandular epithelium lines the __ canal to the internal __ where the endometrium begins.
tranformation/transition, endocervical, os
What type of epithelium is present in the transformation zone? How does it form? Why is this area sampled for Paps?
Squamous metaplasia; Glandular epithelium changes to the hybrid squamous metaplasia as a response to various irritants. HPV likes to infect the transformation zone & cause cellular changes that can lead to CA.
What are the 3 layers of the uterus?
Inner endometrium; Middle myometrium; Outer serosa (mesothelium)
What happens to the myometrium in pregnancy & menopause? Why?
It's hormone sensitive, so in pregnancy it undergoes hypertrophy (increase in cell size) & hyperplasia (increase in cell number. It atrophies during menopause.
What are the 2 layers of the endometrium?
Basalis/basal layer by myometrium which serves as a progenitor layer for new endometrium after each cycle; Superficial functionalis layer from the basilar layer to the surface which is hormonally responsive & undergoes the monthly cycle of proliferation, secretion, & shedding.
What provides the blood supply to the endometrium?
Spiral arteries
Describe how hormonal changes in the menstrual phase cause endometrial shedding.
Decreased estrogen & progesterone from the ovaries causes the spiral arteries to constrict. The functionalis undergoes necrosis so that it & blood are shed as menstrual debris, leaving behind the basalis.
The epithelium of the fallopian tube conatins secretory cells which produce a water fluid w/ __, __, & __ with a __ role for spermatozoa & ova.
Potassium, chloride, immunoglobulins, nutritive
Primordial follicle
Lowest level of maturation; small, solid, located at rim. 1y oocyte surrounded by single layer of follicular cells
Primary follicle
Still solid; Larger; Granulosa & theca cell layers (theca interna produces steroids; theca externa is vascularized CT)
Secondary follicle
Antrum first appears; Corona radiata (single layer of granulosa cells remaining around the primary oocyte)
Mature/Graafian follicle
Mature follicle (primary oocyte has undergone its first meiotic division & is now called the 2y oocyte); fully formed; Form that is ovulated
Corpus luteum
Yellow structure remaining after after ovulation; Granulosa cells produce progesterone
Corpus albicans
Scarred corpus luteum
Proliferative phase
Follicular phase; Days 1-14; Under influence of increasing estrogen by developing follicle, mitotic activity is stimulated in the endometrial glands; Functionalis is comprised of small, straight tubular glands w/ pseudostratified columnar cells demonstrating mitotic activity
Secretory phase
Luteal phase; Days 14-28; Endometrial glands show increased vacuolization & secretions in their lumina; Corresponds to increasing progesterone prodxn by teh corpus luteum
What are the components of the spermatic cord?
Vas deferens, arteries & nerves, and venous & lymphatic drainage for the testes.
What is the tunica albuginea?
Dense sheath of CT surrounding each testis and all 3 corpora.
Where are spermatozoa produced?
Seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous tubules are lined by germinal epithelium which is several layers thick & composed of __ cells (containing __ cells in various stages of __) and __ cells.
Spermatogenic; germ; maturation; Sertoli
What do Sertoli cells do?
Function in the physical & nutritional support of developing germ cells & in the secretion of substances important in testosterone function (androgen binding protein) and sex determination (antimullerian hormone & inhibin)
Leydig cells
Found outside the seminiferous tubules; Site of testosterone production
The prostatic epithelium is __ responsive and depends on __ to maintain its structure & function. Declining __ with __ changes the epithelium from tall columnar to low cuboidal or flat w/ reduced __ activity.
hormone; testosterone; testosterone; age; secretory