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57 Cards in this Set

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2 Pumps of Heart and Functions
-Right Side: Pumps blood through the lungs
-Left Side: Squirts blood to the peripheral organs
Function of Atrium
-"Primer" for the ventricle
Function of Ventricle
-Supplies the main force to move the blood through the circulation
Rhythmic electrical activity normally begins in the _____ ______ _____.
-Sono-Atrial node (SA)
Where is the SA located?
-Superior wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
What do action potentials generate in the SA node?
-Excited electrical (action potential) activity in the atrial muscle which contract in response and inject blood into the ventricles
The electrical activity initiated by the SA node excites the ______ _______ ______.
-Atrioventricular node (AV)
Where is the AV node located?
-Posterior septal wall of the right atrium immediately being the tricupsid valve and and adjacent to the opening of the coronary sinus
What gets excited after the AV node?
-Purkinje fiber system
Purkinje cells (def)
-Specialized for rapid action potential conduction
-Serve to rapidly depolarize the inner wall of the ventricles
2 Pumps of Heart and Functions
-Right Side: Pumps blood through the lungs
-Left Side: Squirts blood to the peripheral organs
Function of Atrium
-"Primer" for the ventricle
Function of Ventricle
-Supplies the main force to move the blood through the circulation
Rhythmic electrical activity normally begins in the _____ ______ _____.
-Sono-Atrial node (SA)
Where is the SA located?
-Superior wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
What do action potentials generate in the SA node?
-Excited electrical (action potential) activity in the atrial muscle which contract in response and inject blood into the ventricles
The electrical activity initiated by the SA node excites the ______ _______ ______.
-Atrioventricular node (AV)
Where is the AV node located?
-Posterior septal wall of the right atrium immediately being the tricupsid valve and and adjacent to the opening of the coronary sinus
What gets excited after the AV node?
-Purkinje fiber system
Purkinje cells (def)
-Specialized for rapid action potential conduction
-Serve to rapidly depolarize the inner wall of the ventricles
2 Pumps of Heart and Functions
-Right Side: Pumps blood through the lungs
-Left Side: Squirts blood to the peripheral organs
Function of Atrium
-"Primer" for the ventricle
Function of Ventricle
-Supplies the main force to move the blood through the circulation
Rhythmic electrical activity normally begins in the _____ ______ _____.
-Sono-Atrial node (SA)
Where is the SA located?
-Superior wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
What do action potentials generate in the SA node?
-Excited electrical (action potential) activity in the atrial muscle which contract in response and inject blood into the ventricles
The electrical activity initiated by the SA node excites the ______ _______ ______.
-Atrioventricular node (AV)
Where is the AV node located?
-Posterior septal wall of the right atrium immediately being the tricupsid valve and and adjacent to the opening of the coronary sinus
What gets excited after the AV node?
-Purkinje fiber system
Purkinje cells (def)
-Specialized for rapid action potential conduction
-Serve to rapidly depolarize the inner wall of the ventricles
What gets excited after the Purkinje cells?
-Ventricular muscle (from the inner to the outside)
What do the ventricular action potentials produce?
-Coordinated contraction of the ventricles which facilitates the proper pumping of the blood through the circulation
How do action potential spread through the various cardiac tissues>
-By local circuit currents
What does the EKG resemble?
-a reflection of the electrical activity if the heart
What kind of measurement is read by the EKG?
-Voltage measurement (produced by current flow)
Name of the two measuring points for an EKG
-Leads
3 Most Common Combinations for Leads
-Lead I
-Lead II
-Lead III
The positive deflections of the EKG represent _______ current dye ti action potentials spreading towad the positive lead of the EKG machine.
-depolarizing
Action potentials flowing away form the positive lead would produce a _______ deflection.
-Downward
3 Phases of Activity Associated with Heart Beat (EKG)
1. P-wave
2. QRS complex
3. T-wave
P-wave (def)
-Voltage change induced by current flow through atrial muscle fibers during the action potential upstroke (depolarizing phase) in these cells
QRS-Comples (def)
-Voltage change induced by current flow through ventricular muscle fibers during the action potential upstroke (depolarizing phase) in these cells
R wave is a _______ signal.
-Large
What contributes to the large size of an R wave in an EKG?
-Rapid-conducting Purkinje fiber system assures the simultaneous initiation of ventricular muscle action potentials
-Synchronized, depolarizing currents flowing through so many ventricular muscle cells leads to a large signal
Why are the Q and S components of the EKG sometimes not seen in patients?
-Components of the action potential spread that are not toward the recording electrode (the left leg).
T-wave (def)
-Voltage change induced by current flow through the ventricular muscle fibers during the action potential repolarization in these cells
T-wave is typically a signal ______ than the P-wave but ______ than the QRS-complex.
-Larger
-Smaller
Why is the T-wave a positive deflection?
-Action potentials on the outer wall of the heart are of shorter duration than those of the inside
The outer part of the ventricles is the ____ to depolarize but the ______ to repolarize.
-Last
-First
T-wave is a wave of repolarization spreading ____ form the positive recording electrode.
-Away
What parts of the EKG's T-wave have important diagnostic meaning?
-Size
-Shape
-Direction
Parts of Heart that no EKG signals are recorded?
-Purkinje fibers
-Nodal tissues
Heart rate: Below and Above normal
-Below 60/min=Slower than norm=Bradycardia
-Above 100/min=too fast=tachycardia
Range for Normal Heart Rate
-50-90 beats/min
Normal values for P-R interval
0.12 and 0.2 sec
Normal QRS complex
-What if its largeer
0.1 sec of less
-Longer= problems with AP conduction in ventricles
Q-T interval
-0.44 sec or less
-Longer= problems with ventricular muscle repolarization and could lead to potentially fatal arrhythmias