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170 Cards in this Set

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What is the most widely used drug by college students?
Alcohol is used by 84% of college students.
Alcohol is the cause of what percent of dropouts at UF?
21%
Alcohol is a factor in what percent of rapes at UF?
75%
How many drinks do most students making D's & F's drink per week?
10 or more
How many drinks do students making A's at UF drink a week?
3 or less
What is alcohol?
A drug
What is ethyl alcohol/ethanol?
An addictive drug produced during fermentation
What occurs in fermentation?
Yeast organisms break down plant sugars, yielding ethanol and carbon dioxide
What occurs during distillation?
Alcohol vapors are released from mash at high temperatures, condensed, and then mixed with water
What does the proof of alcohol mean?
The concentration of alcohol in a beverage
How is proof factored?
Twice the percent alcohol by volume
What is the alcohol by volume of beer?
3-6%
What is the alcohol by volume of ales and malt liquors?
6-8%
What is the alcohol by volume of wine?
9-20%
What is the alcohol by volume of hard liquors?
35-50%
What is blood alcohol concentration (BAC)?
The ratio of alcohol to total blood volume
What is blood alcohol concentration used to measure?
The effects of alcohol
How is difficult is it for alcohol to be absorbed?
Easy
How is alcohol absorbed?
20% diffuses through the stomach lining, the other 80% through the upper 1/3 of the small intestine. The alcohol goes from the bloodstream to the liver where it metabolizes 1/2 oz. of alcohol per hour.
What factors affect alcohol absorption rate?
Alcohol concentration, stomach contents, carbonation, mood, body weight, and gender
What are the immediate, negative effects of alcohol?
Dehydration, irritates GI system, irregular heartbeats with unusually high amounts, hangovers, and impaired judgment
What causes hangovers?
Congeners, a form of alcohol which metabolizes more slowly
What is considered a binge for men?
5 or more drinks in one sitting
What is considered a binge for women?
4 or more drinks in one sitting
Can alcohol reduce your risk of heart disease?
Yes, in moderation; can increase risk with more than one
Does alcohol improve sexual performance?
No
Does alcohol help people sleep better?
Helps them fall asleep faster, but the sleep is not good quality
Can drinking coffee help sober a person up?
No
What kind of shrinkage does drinking cause?
Brain shrinkage
What are the long-term effects of drinking concerning the brain?
Shrinkage and memory loss; lower cognitive thinking abilities occur with moderate drinking
What are the long-term effects of drinking concerning the liver?
Liver hepatitis or cirrhosis
How does long-term drinking effect the cardiovascular system?
Increases blood pressure
What are the effects of long-term drinking on the reproductive system?
Males: lower sperm count
Females: irregular periods
What other problems does long-term drinking cause?
Stomach and intestinal ulcers, and emotional and social problems
Can a person die of alcohol poisoning?
Yes
What are the signs of alcohol poisoning?
Person is unconscious or semi-conscious & cannot be awakened; cold, clammy, pale, or bluish skin; breathing is slow; breathing is irregular; vomiting while "sleeping" or passed out
What are you supposed to do when you suspect someone has alcohol poisoning?
Get help; don't leave the person alone; and don't be concerned with legal consequences
What are the four symptoms of alcoholism?
1. Cravings
2. Loss of control
3. Tolerance
4. Physical dependence
What is the leading preventable cause of death in the US?
Tobacco-related deaths
How many deaths per year are caused by tobacco-related illness?
More than 400,000
What is the annual medical costs of treating tobacco-related illnesses?
More than $50 billion
How many young people try cigarettes each day?
6000
Out of those 6000 young people, how many get addicted?
3000
How many attempts does it take for an adult to successfully quit smoking?
5
What are the four reasons people smoke?
1. Psychological reasons
2. Societal reasons
3. Individual reasons
4. Addiction/dependence
What are the components of tobacco smoke?
Over 4000 chemicals and 43 carcinogens
What are the three most damaging carcinogens in cigarette smoke?
1. Nicotine
2. Tar
3. Carbon monoxide
How does nicotine addict people?
1st: causes pleasure sensations
2nd: builds tolerance
3rd: causes withdrawal
4th: w/o nicotine, most physiological symptoms pass in 48 hours
What are the health effects of one cigarette?
Stimulates brain, causing a nicotine crave; dulls taste buds; irritates throat membranes; increases heart rate and blood pressure; decreases oxygen levels; constricts blood vessels
What are the health effects of long term cigarette use?
Affects the cardiovascular system; affects the respiratory system; causes lung cancer; causes emphysema; causes chronic bronchitis; causes other diseases and many different types of cancers
What are the five parts of the plan to quit smoking?
1. Awareness and compatibility
2. Self-efficacy
3. Plan
4. Commit
5. Maintain
What does the American Lung Assoc. say is the best way to prevent tobacco use?
Education
What are the three strongest methods of prevention when it comes to tobacco use?
Education, communication, and legislation
Which drug kills more people than all other drugs combined?
Tobacco
Which drug kills more college students that all other drugs combined?
Alcohol
What is the most popular illegal drug in America now?
Marijuana
Can smoking marijuana cause lung cancer?
True
What popular nightclub drug is actually an animal tranquilizer?
Ketamine or "Special K"
Which drug is most often linked to incidents of date rape?
Alcohol
What drugs can increase the risk of HIV infection?
Alcohol, cocaine, and heroine and other IV drug use
Which is most likely to trigger an overdose with alcohol?
Barbiturates
What side effects are linked to long-term use of anabolic steroids?
Heart disease, impotence, and severe acne
Which drug has been proven to cause the most birth defects?
Alcohol
Does LSD or alcohol carry a greater danger of overdose?
Alcohol
Is it safe to drink alcohol in moderation when you're pregnant?
No
What is one of the biggest risks in taking illicit drugs?
The absence of the FDA's approval
What are some synonyms of heroin?
Tar, china white, skag, and junk
What are the mental affects of heroin?
Euphoria, relieves emotional pain
What are the physical effects of heroin?
CNS depression, respiratory depression, and decreased blood pressure
What are the dangers of heroin use?
Addiction and death due to respiratory arrest
How are OTC drugs often misused?
Taking too much or taking the drug instead of allowing your immune system to do the work
What are some dangers of OTC drug misuse?
Overdose and/or death
How do people misuse prescription drugs?
Not finishing the whole pack, missing doses, or not following directions
What are the dangers of prescription drug misuse?
Continued illness, medical complications, overdose, or death
What are some synonyms for the drug rohypnol?
Roofies, the forget pill, Mexican valium, and date rape drug
What are the mental effects of rohypnol?
Drowsiness, euphoria, disinhibition, and amnesia
What are the physical effects of rohypnol?
Respiratory depression and decreased blood pressure
What are some dangers of taking rohypnol?
Amnesia, respiratory depression, aspiration, or death
What are some synonyms for GHB?
Grievous bodily harm, liquid X, and Easy Lay
What are the mental effects of GHB use?
Drowsiness, euphoria, disinhibition, and amnesia
What are some physical effects of using GHB?
Respiratory depression and decreased blood pressure
What are some of the dangers of using GHB?
Coma, seizures, respiratory depression, and/or death
What is ecstasy?
An amphetamine-based hallucinogen
What damage does ecstasy cause?
Damages receptor sites in the brain responsible for serotonin
What can ecstasy increase to dangerously high levels?
Body temperature
What are some synonyms for marijuana?
Weed, doobie, pot, krippie, and skunk weed
What are the mental effects of marijuana?
Decreased memory, judgment, reasoning ability, and mental acuity
What are some of the physical effects of marijuana?
Increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of coordination, and slowing of physical reactions
What are some dangers assoc. with marijuana use?
Addiction, lung damage, and psychological effects
What are some synonyms for cocaine?
Powder, snow, flake, blow, toot, or coke
What are some of the mental effects of cocaine?
CNS stimulation, euphoria, and aggressive behavior
What are some physical effects of using cocaine?
Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature
What are some dangers assoc. with cocaine use?
Cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and/or death
What are some factors that may make it easier to become addicted to drugs?
1. Family members had problems
2. Friends drink, smoke, or do drugs
3. They are used as a coping mechanism
What is the addiction continuum?
1. Starts using drugs
2. Gets high
3. Keeps using the drug
4. The brain changes
5. Takes more of the drug to get high
6. Drug dependency begins to occur
7. Gets sick without the drug
8. Drug causes serious problems
What are the 3 parts to addiction treatment?
1. Stop using drugs and receive treatment for withdrawal symptoms if needed
2. Must learn how the drug worked in his/her life
3. Must learn how to avoid using the drug again
What are the five leading causes of death?
1. Cardiovascular disease
2. Cancer
3. Cerebrovascular disease
4. Chronic lung disease
5. Accidental injury
What accounts for 40% of all deaths?
Cardiovascular disease
How many chambers does the heart have?
4
How big is the heart?
Fist-sized
How many times per day does the heart pump?
About 35,000
How is the heart able to pump so much?
Cardiac muscle does not fatigue
What are the two circulatory systems and where are they located?
1. Pulmonary-pumps from the heart to the lungs, on the R. side
2. Systemic-pumps from the heart to the rest of the body, on the L. side
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood pumped from the heart in a single contraction
What is cardiac output?
The total amount of blood pumped from the heart per minute
What is the average cardiac output?
5 liters per minute
What is blood pressure?
The force of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels
What is systolic blood pressure?
Pressure against the artery walls when the heart is contracting
What is diastolic blood pressure?
Pressure against the artery walls when the heart is relaxing
How is blood pressure measured?
Systolic BP divided by diastolic BP
What is a high blood pressure range?
Greater than 140/90 mm/Hg
What are the affects of hypertension?
Vessel damage, other forms of heart disease, pulmonary problems (pulmonary edema), and kidney problems
How does the blood flow through the heart?
Body to the heart to the lungs (where it is oxygenated) to the heart to the rest of the body
What are the three primary coronary arteries?
1. L. coronary artery
2. R. coronary artery
3. Circumflex artery
What do arteries carry?
Oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
What do veins carry?
Deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
How thick are capilleries?
One cell thick
What are the primary controllable CVD risk factors?
1. Tobacco
2. Hypercholesterolemia
3. Hypertension
4. Physical inactivity
What are some secondary controllable CVD risk factors?
1. Obesity
2. Diabetes
3. Stress
What are some uncontrollable risk factors for CVD?
Genetics, age, and race
What is atherosclerosis?
The build-up of plaque in the inner lining of the artery
What causes vessel damage?
1. High blood pressure
2. Turbulent flow
3. Chemical damage
What is coronary heart disease?
When the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart are narrowed or hardened
What is the most common type of heart disease?
Coronary heart disease
What is a myocardial infarction?
Death of some of the heart's muscle tissue because of a decrease in oxygen supply
What is congestive heart failure?
A disorder in which the heart loses to ability to pump blood efficiently to meet out body's needs
What are some common causes of congestive heart failure?
Arthersclerosis, damage after a MI, heart valve disease, viruses, and chronic alcohol use
What is cerebrovascular disease?
Interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain, resulting in damaged brain tissue
What is a thrombus?
A blood clot
What is an embolism?
A blood clot in the lower body
What is an aneurysm?
The ballooning of an artery
What is a transient ischemic attack?
Loss of oxygen, or a "ministroke"
How do you prevent cardiovascular disease?
Exercise, diet, not smoking, stress and weight management, annual doctor visits, treating existing risk factors, and avoiding excessive alcohol use
What are Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's five stages of dying?
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
What is cancer?
A disease of abnormal and uncontrolled cellular growth
What begins to form when normal cells lose their ability to control their growth?
A tumor
What are benign tumors?
Not cancer and they do not spread
What are malignant tumors?
Cancer and they can spread or metastasize
What are the four types of cancers?
1. Carcinomas
2. Sarcomas
3. Lymphomas
4. Leukemias
Where do carcinomas occur?
In the tissues that cover external body surfaces, tissues that line internal organs, i.e. skin, breasts, uterus, prostate, lungs, and GI tract
Where do sarcomas occur?
Arise from connective and fibrous tissues, i.e. muscle, bone, and cartilage
Where do lymphomas occur?
In the lymph nodes
Where do leukemias occur?
In the bone-marrow
What are the seven major warning signs of cancer?
Change in bowel or bladder habits
A sore that does not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious change in a wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
What are the three types of skin cancer?
1. Basal cell
2. Squamos cell carcinomas
3. Melanoma
What is diabetes?
A disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin
What is an epidemic?
An outbreak
What is an endemic?
A regular occurrence
What is a pandemic?
An outbreak over a wide area
What are communicable diseases?
Infectious diseases
What are non-communicable diseases?
Non-infectious diseases
What are acute diseases?
Short term illnesses
What are chronic diseases?
Long term illnesses
What is the outbreak chain of infection?
1. Agent = causes disease
2. Reservoir = where agent resides
3. Portal of exit = how the agent leaves the reservoir
4. Mode of transmission = how the agent is spread
5. Portal of entry - how the agent enters its new host
6. The new host
How is the chain of infection interrupted?
Reservoir can be isolated or destroyed; public sanitation; transmission is disrupted; or immunization or treatment of the infected hosts
What are the body's physical and chemical barriers?
Skin; mucous membranes; gastric juices; and antibodies and enzymes
What recognizes the invading pathogen?
Macrophages
What amplifies the defense?
Helper T cells trigger the production of killer T and B cells
What slowdowns the activity?
Suppressor T cells
What are the three types of pathogens?
1. Bacteria
2. Viruses
3. Other types
How are bacterial infections cured?
Antibiotics
How are viral infections cured?
There is no cure
How does Vitamin C help protect your immune system?
Increases white blood cells and antibodies; increases levels of interferon; lowers risk of CVD; increases levels of HDL cholesterol; decreases blood pressure; lowers the risk of colon,. prostate, and breast cancer
What is an STI?
An infectious disease spread from person to person through sexual contact
2/3 of STI cases occur in who?
Young people
Why are young people more at risk for STI's?
Numerous sexual partners; more likely not to use protection; select partners who are at a higher risk
What are some of the effects of STI's?
Sterility; infants can suffer from deformities or blindness; there is no cure for many STI's; increases risk of cancer; death; social stigma
What are the kind of bacterial STI's?
Chlamydia; gonorrhea; and syphilis
What are the kinds of viral STI's?
Genital warts; genital herpes; and HIV/AIDS
What are the four infectious body fluids?
1. Blood
2. Semen
3. Vaginal secretions
4. Breast milk