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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The main goal of infection ++++ is to prevent the spread of infectious disease.
control
Pathogens are ___ or disease causing microorganisms of the body
germs
Strict adherence to proper procedure prevents spread of ______
pathogens
An infection can be generalized or ++++++
systemic
Generalized infections associated with headaches, fever, ____, vomiting, diarrhea, and inc in pulse and respiration
fatigue
Localized infections associated with swollen, ____, warm to touch, and painful. May also be drainage.
red
Microorganisms are very small, usually one-celled lving plants or animals can only be seen with aid of +++++++
microscope
The study of ++++++ is called microbiology. Micro=small bio=life logy=study of
microorganisms
Pasteur 1800's Germ theory specific microorganisms called _____ are the cause of specific diseases in humans and animals.
bacteria
Contageous or communicable disease transmitted directly or ____ from one individual to another by the contaminated presence of infectious material on hands of drs and rns.
indirectly
Holmes 1843 disease spread by _____ with infectious materials on hands.
contamination
Sennelweis no washing of hands led to )))))))
infection
Lord Joseph Lister asceptic ++++ technique prevented contamination of wound.
surgical
Normal flora- microorganisms in skin, vagina, and intestines not normally --------
harmful
When an infection occurs due to a weakened state of the body, it is called ______ infection.
opportunistic
Suppressed immune function associated with chemotherapy, long term antibiotic use (decreases growth of normal ____),
flora
Immune function assoc with age, presence of other disease, level of phys health, mental ++++, nutrition, and medications.
stress
Microorganisms can derive nutrients from nonliving material or living organisms or +++++
hosts
If the relationship between the microorganism and the host is beneficial, it is called _____If no effect upon each other ++++++. If damage is done to the host, the rel is called +++++
symbiosis
neutralism
parasitic
Any living thing that nourishes at cost to other organism, and damages them is called ______
parasite
Bacteria may be pathogenic or +++++
nonpathogenic
When a group of bacteria grows in one place it is called a +++++
colony
Bacteria is categorized according to its shape: round, rod, and _____
spiral
Round bacteria are called +++++. Round bacteria subdivied into micrococcus or single, diplococci or pairs, stahylococci or clusters, and streptococci or _____
cocci
chains
Micrococci cause ++++ and wound infections. Diplococci cause gonnorhea, menningitis, and some ______
skin
pneumonia
Staphylococcus is pus producing and can cause +++++, boils, wound infections, and UTI
abcesses
Streptococci can cause rheumatic +++++ and sore or strep throat
fever
+++++ shaped bacteria are called bacilli. Bacilli appear singly. Coccobacilli are _____. Diplobaccilli appear in pairs. Steptobacilli are attached end to end to form a chain.
rod-shaped\
oval
Common diseases caused by bacilli are: TB, tetanus, pertusis, and +++++and diphtheria and typhoid fever
botulism
There are 3 kinds of spiral bacteria: Vibrios or _____ rods, Sprilla or rigid, and Spirochetes flexible.
curved
Common diseases by spiral shaped bacteria are cholera and _____
syhyliss
Gramstaining is a lab method for identifying type of +++++
bacteria
Gram positive bacteria retains the ++++Gram neg bacteria ____ the stain. Acid fast bacteria retains the stain even when treated with ++++
stain
loses
acid
Gramstaining can help to identify the +++++ to prescribe. Also can grow bacteria in lab medium
antibiotic
Viruses are the smallest of microbes and cannot be seen under the traditional light +++++
microscope
viruses can only live inside other organisms. Called obligate _____ parasites.
intracellular
Viruses not killed by _____, resistant to disinfectants, and multiply rapidly.
antibiotics
Viruses assoc with flu, AIDS, measles, mumps, herpes, warts, and _____
polio
The two forms of fungi, a plant are yeast and ++++. Yeast are one celled and molds are ____celled.
molds
multi
Fungi cannot produce their ____ food.
own
.Many yeasts and molds are harmless because they are ____However, under right conditions can create +++++ infection.
nonpathogenic
opportunistic
Fungi assoc with ringworm, ____ foot, infections of hair, skin, and scalp.
athletes
Rickettsia are much ____ than bacteria. Rod or spherical shape. Gram negative. Obligate intracellular ______
smaller
parasites
Rickettsia causes typhus and Rocky Mountain _____. Passed thru flies, ticks, lice, and _____
Fever
mites
Epidemic typhus is only rickettsia passed by ++++++
humans
Protozoa only micoorganism classified as +++++. One celled. Reside in and on the human body.
animal
Protozoa cause dysentery, trichomonias, toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, and ______
malaria
pneumocystic pneumonia in immuno-______
suppressed
malaria - bite of mosquito or blood ______
transfusion
The chain of ____ is a model for exlaining how infectious diseases are transmitted.
infection
The chain of infection requires 1. an infectious agent or pathogen must be +++++
present
The chain of infection requires 1. infectious agent and 2. resevoir host or place where ++++ lives and grows.
pathogen
When animals and humans are capable of transmitting the disease but show no outward signs or symptoms, they are called _______
carriers
The chain of infection steps are 1. infectious agent, 2,resevoir host, and portal of ++++ or how the pathogen escapes the resevoir host.
exit
The chain of infection steps are 1. infectious agent, 2,resevoir host, and 3.portal of exit, 4. route of ____ or when the pathogen leaves the resevoir host thru the poral of exist, it must have a way of being transmitted to ++++host.
transmission
new
The chain of infection steps are 1. infectious agent, 2,resevoir host, and 3.portal of exit, 4. route of transmission or when the pathogen leaves the resevoir host thru the portal of exist, it must have a way of being transmitted to new host. 5.portal of ____ or the pathogen must have a way to enter new host.
entry
The chain of infection steps are 1. infectious agent, 2,resevoir host, and 3.portal of exit, 4. route of transmission or when the pathogen leaves the resevoir host thru the portal of exist, it must have a way of being transmitted to new host. 5.portal of entry or the pathogen must have a way to enter new host.6. Susceptible host or indiv with large no of pathogens not adequate +++++
resistance
Examples of body defense mechanisms: cilia in the respiratory ____ that catch and remove pathogens
tract
Examples of body defense mechanisms:coughing and ++++ to propel pathogens outward
sneezing
Examples of body defense mechanisms:tears which contain +++++ to kill bacteria
chemicals
Examples of body defense mechanisms: mucous membranes of the respiratory, +++++, and reproductive tracts which serve to trap pathogens.
digestive
Examples of body defense mechanisms:rise in body temp to a _____that will kill microorganisms
fever
Examples of body defense mechanisms: production of additional leukocytes, which have function destroy ______
pathogens
Health care facility has higher concentration of ++++++
microorganisms
Noscomial infection- acquired thru association with _____ care facilities
health
Noscomial infections inc, and include UTI, surgical site, pneumonia or ++++, bloodstream, infections
lung
CDC handwashing single most imp prevention of ++++++ infections
noscomial
2 imp regulatory agencies: the CDC (epidemiology) and OSHA -minimum health and safety standards for _____
workplace
Asepsis procedures to make the patient, worker, and enviroment as ____-free as possible.
pathogen
Two types of asepsis: medical (clean technique) and +++++ or sterile technique
surgical
Breaking the Chain of infection
Source of infection: ____ host and infectious ____.
resevoir
agent
Breaking the Chain of infection
Means of ______: portal of exit, portal of ____, and route of transmission.
entry
Breaking the Chain of infection
Susceptible _____
host
Decrease the source of microorganisms: proper ------ washing.
hand
How to prevent the transmission of microorganisms P___, and isolation procedures
PPE
Have can I maximize the resistance of the host? good hygiene, proper nutrition and fluid intake, decrease _____
stress
First line of defense good _____washing technique
hand
Two types of flora: resident that is very hard to remove and ++++ that care be easily removed with handwashing. Pathogenic or non
transient
Transient flora can be removed and normal flora ______
diminished
CDC developed procedures to prevent contact with potentially infectious agents. Called _____ procedures
standard
potentially infectious body fluids req standard precautions are: blood, all body fluids except sweat, nonintact skin, ++++ membranes, and any unidentified fluids.
mucous
Good times for handwashing when coming on duty, when taking a ____or leave work, between pt contacts, and before or after touch face or parts of face.
break
Good times for handwashing:
after contact with contaminated and before touching anything _____
clean
PPE or ------- protective equipment includes gloves, masks, eyewear, gowns, and caps.
personal
OSHA req the use of ____, the selection maintenance, and use of PPE, training and monitoring.
PPE
Handwashing 1.Turn faucet on using a clean dry +++++ towel 2 Run warm water over _____ and wrists. 3 Do not lean against the ____ and avoid splashing. 4 Keep hands lower than arms and point fingertips +++++. 5 Apply liquid soap to hands. 6 Scrub palms in a _____ motion while clasping hands together. 7 Scrub wrists 1 to +++ inches above the hands by encircling one wrist with other hand 8. Scrub ___ of each hand by cupping other hand.9.Scrub between the fingers by interlacing. 10. Clean each finger with cuticle stick, brush, or finger nail other hand 11. Scrub total 2 min 12. Rinse from wrists to +++++13. Dry paper towel. 14. Use another dry paper towel to turn off faucet. 15. Clean sink with dry paper towels. no recontaminate.
paper
hands
sink
downward
circular
back
fingertips
1.Infectious agent - to stop rapid ID or === signs. 2. resevoir host to stop medical asepsis, enviromental sanitation, employee health, standard _____, disinfectant and sterilization. 3. Portal of exit- medical asepsis, PPE, hand+++, standard precautions, 4. Route of transmission medical asepsis, standard precautions, transmission based precautions, handwashing, 6. Susceptible host- tx of underlying causes and recognition of high risk pts.
early
precautions
washing
Standard Precautions include hand hygiene and PPE. PPE includes gloves, ++++ mouth eye nose protection, respiratory hygiene,
gowns
Standard Precautions include hand hygiene and PPE. PPE includes gloves, ++++ mouth eye nose protection, respiratory hygiene,
gowns
Apply and Remove Gloves
1. Proper handwashing tech 2. Use correct ___ gloves 3. To remove: grasp the outside of the glove at the palm with the other size glove. At no time should the hands touch the outside of the _____ gloves.4. Hold the removed glove in the ++++ of the remaining glove hand.5. Take the ungloved hand and slide it under the cuff of the remaining glove. The first glove is now inside the second glove that was removed. 5. Take the ungloved hand and slide it under the cuff of the remaining glove and push the glove off. The last glove is now inside the second glove that was removed. Discard gloves in right container and wash hands immed.
size
comtaminated
remaining
Special guidelines for apply and removing PPE in +++++ areas.
contaminated
Apply and remove PPE. 1. Handwash 2. Put on cap, mask, protective eye wear, and ++++3. Put on the gown by placing hands inside the shoulders. 4. Apply ____ last. 5. Pull the cuffs over the sleeves of the gown to create a _____6. Untie the waist +++ of the gown.7. Remove contaminated gloves. 8. Wash ____9. Remove cap and protective eye wear. 10. Untie the neck tie of the gown and remove the +++++11. To remove the gown, slip tthe fingers of one hand under the cuff of the opposite arm and pull the gown down until it covers the hand. 12. Use the gown covered hand, grasp the outside of the gown on the opposite arm and pull the gown down until it covers the hand. 13. Both hands are now inside the gown. Use covered hands to grasp the gown at the shoulders and turn the gown inside out, with the contaminated side on inside. Roll up and throw away. 14. Remove the mask. Hold the mask by the strings to discard. 15. Wash hands.
gown
gloves
seal
ties
hands
gown
Standard Precautions include: handwashing and PPE. Can be transmitted by mucous ____ and body fluids.
membranes
Other standard precautions involve: linen, enviromental control, and needle handling and _____
disposal
Three types of transmission based precautions: airborne, +++++ and contact. Used in additon to standard precautions.
droplet
Neutropenic precautions are ordered for those +++++ to infections.
susceptible
Methods to Inhibit or Destroy Microbes: Antiseptics are bacteriostatic and include alcohol. Disinfectants destroy most bacteria and____. Disinfectants are cidal. Bleach is one. Boiling is a physical disinfectant.
viruses
Bacteriocidal vs bacteriostatic. Disinfectants are cidal. Cidals kill. and antiseptics are static; Statics diminish. -------- is the best cidal.
Sterilization
Surgical asepsis creates a ____ field.
sterile
Blood borne pathogens: TB, hepatitis B, HIV, and drug-resistant _____
infections
Hepatitus A, B, C, D, and ++++
E
Standard _____ must follow at all times. blood, body fluids (secretions and _____) except sweat. Nonintact skin
precautions
excretions
Surgical asepsis known as ___ technique cause it eliminates pathogens.
sterile
TB airborne -------
caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Skin test for detection
Latent TB and TB disease
Still problem for US
Drug resistant stains developing
pathogen
Both latent
TB and active TB test ____
positive
Bird Flu is called ____ influenza.
avian
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
is called mad ____ disease
cow
West ____ virus transmitted by mosquitos
Nile
Swine flu
____ influenza
H1N1
Drug resistant organisms develop from pts who don't complete antibiotics and overuse of ______
antibiotics
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) Health care acquired MRSA
Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA)
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus ++++++
Aureus
Another drug ______microorganism vancomyosin resistant enterococcus.
resistant
Mad cow disease
Presumably transmitted by eating infected _____
H1N1
Primarily transmitted human-to-human
meat
Must immediately report any exposure to blood or _____fluids
Write incident or injury report
Refer to Exposure Control Plan
body