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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Contrast training with development
Training is narrowly focused and oriented on short-term performance. Development is broadening skills for future responsibilities.
What are most training budgets spent on?
Professional skills, managerial skills, IT, technical processes, OHSM, communication skills
What are the goals of training?
To contribute to the organization's overall goals and objectives
What are the phases of training?
Needs assessment: organizational, task, and person analysis
Program design: instructional objectives, trainee readiness, learning principles
Implementation: on- and off-the-job methods, management development
Evaluation: reactions, learning, behaviour, results
What are the components of a training needs assessment?
Org analysis: environment, strategies, resources of org
Task analysis: idenify tasks, duties, activities, and performance, KSAs required
Person analysis: who needs, based on performance appraisal if due to ability problems (not motivation or external) and interviews
What should training design focus on?
Instructional objectives, trainee readiness and motivation, principles of learning, and characteristics of instructors
How can you create a training environment conducive to learning?
- Use positive reinforcement
- Eliminate threats and punishment
- Be flexible
- Have participants set personal goals
- Design interesting instruction
- Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning
Training programs are more effective if they incorporate what elements?
- Goal setting
- Meaningfulness of presentation
- Modelling
- Recognition of individual differences in learning style
- Active practice and repitition
- Whole- versus Part-learning
- Massed- versus distributed-learning
- Feedback and reinforcement
What are the characteristics of strong instructors?
Knowledge of the subject, adaptability, sincerity, sense of humour, interest, clear instructions, individual assistance, enthusiasm
What are common training methods for non-managerial employees?
OTJ, apprenticeship, co-op, classroom, programmed instruction, e-learning, simulation
What are common training methods for managerial employees?
OTJ (particularly coaching, understudy, job rotation, lateral transfer, special projects), seminars and conferences, case studies, management games, role-playing, behaviour modelling
How should training be evaluated?
Reactions: are trainees satisfied? survey at end with specific questions

Learning: test knowledge and skills vs. control group

Behaviour: transfer of training

Results: ROI
What are the pros and cons of on the job training?
Hands-on experience, build relationships, saves time; often poor implementation because poorly-structured training environment, poor training skills, no job performance criteria.
How can on the job training be improved?
Prepare, reassure, orient, perform, evaluate, review

Should be well organized, supervised, and challenging
How can transfer of training be maximized?
Make training similar to job, or else teach general principles. Establish climate for transfer, give employees transfer strategies. For assessment, make observations after return to work and interview managers, examine performance appraisals
What are the purpose and benefits of orientation programs for new employees?
Purpose: familiarize with organization, jobs, work units

Benefits: lower turnover, inc productivity, imp morale, lower recruit/train costs, facilitation of learning, red in anxiety
What should orientation programs include?
Info about conditions of employment, notify work unit of new worker, mentors for new employees, intro to other employees, outline training, explain expectations, duties, standards, appraisal criteria, regulations, organization's purpose and goals
What are the characteristics of effective diversity training programs?
-Representative steering committees
-Workshops: executive participation, workbooks, teach key topics and policies, participants describe what they would do to support diversity and list ground rule or norms, managers discuss and revise rules, link to other HR initiatives like recruitment
-Managers accountable for achieving goals