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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TQM and CQI
- Total Quality Management
- Continuous Quality Management
- 2 ways to strictly focus on improving quality services because quality is important to keep the market and not be sued.
- a philosophy that becomes part of the corporate culture
- requires total commitment and involvement of everyone in the HSO
- is prospective and ongoing
CONTROLLING
- ensuring that operating results conform to planned results
- involves the establishment of standards, comparison of actual results against the standard, and corrective action when performance deviates from the plan.
- evaluation
- an ongoing, organization-wide framework in which HSOs and their employees are committed to and involved in monitoring and evaluating all aspects of the HSO's activities and outpust in order to continuously improve them.
- requires management to meet its leadership responsibility to train employees
- management encourages innovation, worker participation, and team builiding so employees can contribute to process improvement probblem solving and to facilitate organizational change that leads to improvement
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS TO CONTROLLING
- organization wide
- process focused
- uses output or inspection measures
- customer driven
- Asks the question, "are we doing things right?"
COMMITTEES
- Ad hoc is a temporary committee made up with people of the organization
- Standing committee is a long term committee
MORALE FACTORS
- things that unions fight for like pay, benfits, job security, and work environment/quality of work life
- represent lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (survival, safety, and social)
MORALE
- is a state of mind based largely on the perceptions of workers toward their work, their employer, their colleagues and their supervisors
- concerns job satisfaction
- If it is high people are less likely to quit, complain or give supervisors a bad time.
MOTIVATION
- a cognitive drive that occurs when Maslow's two higher needs are met: self esteem and self-actualization
- motivation dissipates when morale is low, but high morale doesn't increase motivation
- content employees may lack motivation to maximize performance
- degree of readiness or the desire within an individual to pursue some goal
- all motivation is self motivation, but its the managers job to recognize the human needs of the workers so workers accept organizational goals and create an organizational environment.
- all employees are motivated but their energy doesn't always flow into work
- As self motivation increases the need for coercive controls and punishment decreases
MAJOR FACTORS THAT IMPACT MORALE
- employee factors (personality, family, ease and safet)
- Nature of Job and Job Ambiance (job security, stimulating, prestige, growth, stress, financial status, communication)
- Attitude and Behavior of Employer and Management
SIGNS OF A MORALE PROBLEM
- productivity plummets
- employees work a minimum level required to keep their jobs
- employees complain and even complain to patients and customers
- employees become resistant to change
- they rarely volunteer and seldom pitch in to help
- absenteeism and tardiness
- don't participate in meetings
- don't make suggestions or approve ideas of others
- cynicism, sarcasm, and belittling
- avoid managers
- conversations are directed away from the productive work
- Talk about retiring, changing employers
- talk about how friends have better employers
- more qualified employees resign while the deadwood remain
METHODS FOR OBTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT EMPLOYEE MORALE
- attitude surveys
- exit interviews
- anonymous employee focus groups
- hotlines and suggestion boxes
HOW EMPLOYERS IMPROVE MORALE
- use and react quickly to surveys
- establish problem solving organization culture
- control false rumors
- share more financial info about organizations with employees
- insist on fair and equitable treatment
- control harassment and discrimination
- spend time where work is taking place
- make sure managers screen job candidates carefully
- provide extensive training
- upgrade reward and recognition systems
- know salaries and benefits competitors offer
- introduce flexible rules and regs
- reward team and individual outcomes
- promote well being of employees (health education, risk assessments, screening)
- introduce incentives that focus on the family and lifestyles
HOW SUPERVISORS IMPROVE MORALE
- treat people as winners or potential winners
- reward and recognize
- ensure social acceptance
- instill pride through better orientation of new employees
- make sure employees know the why and how of their tasks
- maintain optimism
- assign discouraged workers to team of go getters
- get rid of troublemakers
- flexible work schedules
- keep persons informed
- become a change master
- involve people in decision making and planning
- help employees get raises
TECHNIQUES FOR GETTING RAISES FOR EMPLOYEES
- rewrite position descriptions (highlight what justifies raising their salaries)
- train and mentor them to enhance value in organization
- give more prestigious titles
- never try to keep key people by denigrating their performance or qualifications to others
PROACTIVE EFFORT
- anticipative measures precede performance which affects motivation
REACTIVE EFFORT
- measures follow performance and serve to reinforce desired behavior or outcomes which affects motivation
BASES OF MOTIVATION
- Needs (internal)- felt wants of the individual which refers to drives and desires
- Incentives (external)- factors the individual perceives as possible satisfiers of felt needs
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
- every action is motivated by an unsatisfied need
- once a need has been satisfied another level of need must be appealed to in order to motivate workers
- a satisfied need is no longer a motivator
- Order of needs: physiological, safety and security, need to belong and engage in social activity, need for esteem and status, need for self-fulfillment
DISSATISFIERS
- perceived as negative or lacking
- examples are company policy, supervisors, working conditios, interpersonal relationships among work group members
HERZBERG'S TWO FACTOR THEORY
- 2 factors that are operative in motivation is satisfiers and dissatisfiers
- these factors are not motivators
HERZBERG'S MOTIVATING FACTORS
RAGWAR
- Recognition
- Achievement
- Growth (career)
- Work itself
- Advancement
- Responsibility
PROACTIVE STRATEGIES OF MOTIVATION
- what motivates one employee may not motivate the other
- define expectations, set goals, delegate, train, coach, counsel and provide performance feedback
- provide for maintenance and growth of professional skills to avoid obsolescence
- Tight supervisory controls and delegate decision making authority
- change job triteles and rewrite position descriptions to make jobs more important
- recruit and select motivated people
- improve the job itself
- learn about personalities
- don't rely on salary for rewards and recognition
- take your workers into your confidence, seek their advice, share info and be fair and consistent
- provide resources and support and don't stand in the way
- be a respected role model
- smile
- increase opportunities for education and training
- switch to participative management style
- delegate and empower
- give ambitious people more responsibility plus authority
REACTIVE STRATEGIES OF MOTIVATION
- When money is scarce for rewarding, recognition and praise become important. Recognition and praise elevate self esteem, improves morale, and motivates
- express appreciation in ways that convince employees that they are important
- can be oral or written
- make sure the recognition and praise is perceived as fair
SATISFIERS
- factors in organizational life that are present and perceived as good
- Examples are company policies, supervisors, working conditions, interpersonal relationships among work group members
EXAMPLES OF MOTIVATORS
- opportunity for advancement
- opportunity for promotion
- greater responsibility and the ability to be challenged and creative
- opportunity for growth
- opportunity for interesting work and opportunities to develop skills and abilities
MASLOW VS. HERZBERG
- Herzberg's motivators parallel Maslow's concept of higher level needs
- if employers know the motives of workers who they want to influence (Maslow), then the employer should be able to determine what goals (Herzberg)they should provide in the environment to motivate those workers.
- money and benefits satisfy needs and physiological and security levels
- interpersonal relationships and supervision satisfy needs at the social level
- increased responsibility, challenging work and growth and development are motivators at the esteem and self-fulfillment actualization levels.
MCGREGOR'S THEORY OF MOTIVATION
- Assumptions that compare the traditional view of workers (theory X) with his own view of industrial behavior (theory Y)
THEORY X
- managers assume that workers have an inherent dislike for work, that workers have little ambition, that workers will avoid work if possible and want security above all else.
- won't have motivated workers
THEORY Y
- managers assume that work is as natural as play or rest
- managers assume that the average worker, under the right conditions, seeks to accept responsibility
- managers assume that workers will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
- has motivated workers
GROUP DYNAMICS
- attempts to understand the behavior in which people interact with, influence, and are influenced by others within a group
WHAT IS A GROUP?
1. 2 or more people in social interactions
2. A stable structure
3. Common interest or goals
4. The individuals perceive themselves as a group
GROUP INTERACTION
- the process by which members of a group exchange verbal and nonverbal
WHY DO PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS
- satisfy need for belonging
- satisfy social and affection needs
- satisfy the need for safety
- part of an individual's self esteem and social identity
- Achieve goals that can't be achieved by oneself
GROUP NORMS
- an implied code of conduct about what is acceptable and unacceptable member behavior
GROUP COHESIVENESS
The degree of group cohesiveness is determined by carious factors:
- the size of the group (the bigger the group the greater risk of social loafing)
- experience of success by the group
- group status
- outside threats to the gp
CONFORMITY
- involves the changing of an individual's perceptions of behaviors to match the attitudes or behaviors of others
- strong group norms and high degrees of group cohesiveness can hampr the performance of a group due to conformity pressures
GROUPTHINK
- refers to conditions under which efforts to maintain group harmony undermine critical thought and poor decisions by the group
- Type I: Overestimation of the group of its power and morality
- Type II: Closed mindedness
- Type III: Pressures toward uniformity
GROUP SIZE
- optimum size of group is 5 members
- Less than 5 may lead to the inability to make decisions and lower levels of creativity
- More than 5 may lead to social loafing, forming of subgroups distracting from the group's goals, and more time used for functioning purposes
PRIMARY GROUP
- family
- close friends and peers
SECONDARY GROUP
- all social networks
- largest circle of people
REFERENCE GROUPS
- Who you strive to be like
- CEOs
- Donald Trump
INFORMAL GROUP STRUCTURE
- organized based on he members' common interests or goals
FORMAL GROUP STRUCTURE
- created by the organization as part of its structure
- defined on organization chart
- functional group
- command group
- task group
- psychoeducation groups
FORMING
- group members are determining what are the appropriate behaviors and core values of the group
STORMING
- the group has a high level of emotion because they are exerted their own individuality and developing their group identity
NORMING
- The group becomes cohesive with a structure for accomplishing its task
PERFORMING
- Everyone puts in a maximum energy for getting the job done
ADJOURNING
- group is disrupted for many reasons
- some reasons might be because it completed its goal or it failed to achieve its goal