Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/97

Click to flip

97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Factors that affect one's joint flexibility include:
- amount of tissue adjacent to the joint

- the skin

- bony structure of the joint
Joint flexibility is important due to:
Daily range of motion.
Benefits of flexibility include:
- reduction of stress

- relief of muscle cramps

- prevention of injuries
Agonists are:
Muscles that contract during the stretch.
A stretch reflex is:
Automatic contraction of the muscle being stretched.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation is:
a form of static stretching
A goniometer is used for:
Measuring flexibility
Lower back pain is attributed to:
excessive body weight and cigarette smoking
Using bouncing motions to improve your range of motion is called:
Ballistic stretching
Flexibility is influenced by:
- Age
- Gender
- Physical activity
How many calories does one gram of fat contain?
9
One gram of protein contains how many calories?
4
Which of the following vitamins are considered antioxidants?
C & E
Which of the following vitamins are fat-soluble?
A & E
What is the function of a carbohydrate?
the main source of energy for all body functions, and are necessary for the metabolism of other nutrients
The building blocks of protein are called:
Amino acids
Dietary Fiber plays a positive role in possibly:
Lowering cholesterol and reducing the chances of colon cancer
An example of a complete protein are:
animal flesh and a food containing all the essential amino acids
Taking vitamin supplements would be highly recommended for the following populations:
dieters, people over the age of 65, and smokers
Carbohydrates are needed for instant energy. (T/F)
True
Minerals are needed on a daily basis in trace amounts. (T/F)
True
Vitamin B is considered an antioxidant. (T/F)
False
Proteins are considered macronutrients. (T/F)
True
A calorie is a measurement of heat. (T/F)
True
An incomplete protein contains all essential amino acids. (T/F)
False
Fats help synthesize vital cell transport. (T/F)
True
Palm oil is considered an unsaturated fat. (T/F)
False
Peanut oil is an example of a monounsaturated fat. (T/F)
True
Water acts as a medium for chemical reactions in the body. (T/F)
True
Amino acids
chemical structures that form proteins
Antioxidants
compounds that block the oxidation of substances in food or the body
vitamins c and e and beta-carotene are examples
botanicals (phytomedicinals)
plants that are thought to have medicinal qualities (also called "herbs" and "phytomedicians")
calorie
short for "kilocalorie," which is the unit of measure for food energy; a calorie is the unit of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade
carb loading
the practice of increasing carbohydrate intake for six days before an event, while decreasing exercise duration
complex carbohydrates
polysaccharides, including starch and fiber
Daily Values (DVs)
nutritional guidelines for the ingestion of carbohyrdate, fat, saturated fat, cholesteral, sodium, potassium, and dietary fiber
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
the replacement for the Recommended Dietary Allowance as the standards for presenting nutrient recommendations
Enhanced Food
food that has been modified and/or supplemented for the purpose of achieving or facilitating a health benefit
essential nutrients
nutrients that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied in the diet
folate
a vitamin B nutrient found primarily in leafy nutrients
foodborne illness
illness caused by ingestion of foods caused by toxic substances produced by microorganisms
free radicals
naturally produced chemicals that arise from cell activity
functional foods
foods that provide a specific health benefit above and beyond their inherent nutritional value
Glycemic Index (GI)
an assessement of food in terms of its ability to increase blood sugar in the two to three hours after eating
hydrogenation
the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acid to make it more saturated
macronutrients
nutrients required by the the body in large amounts; usually refers to energy nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrates
micronutrients
nutrients required by the body in small amounts; usually refers to vitamins and minerals
minerals
inorganic compounds in food necessary for good health
monosaturated fat
fatty acid composed of tryglycerides in which the carbon chain has room for two hydrogen atoms
nutrient density
the ratio of nutrients to calories; also called the "index of nutritional quality"
phytochemicals
plant chemicals that exist naturally in foods
polyunsaturated fat
fatty acid composed of triglycerides in which the carbon chain has room for four or more hydrogen atoms
saturated fat
a fatty acid composed of triglycerides in which all the fatty acids contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
trans fatty acids
saturated fat found in processed food that has been hydrogenated
vitamins
organic compounds in food necessary for good health
vitamin supplements
natural and synthetic compounds taken orally to supplement the vitamins consumed in food
amenorrhea
the cessation of menstrution
body composition
the amount of lean vs. fat tissue in the body
body mass index (BMI)
the ratio of body weight in kilograms to height in meters squared
obesity
an excessive amount of storage fat
overfat
may or may not be within normal guidelines for weight but with an excessive ratio of fat, compared with lean tissue
overweight
excessive weight for one's height without regard for body composition
anorexia nervosa
a serious illness of of deliberate self-starvation with profound psychiatric and physical compounds
bariatric surgery
surgery to reduce weight
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the number of calories needed to sustain life
binge-eating disorder
the practice of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with perceived imperfections in physical appearance that cause the person to withdraw from social activities
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of secretive binge eating and purging
caloric deficit
a deficit that occurs when the number of calories burned exceeds the number of calories consumed
caloric expenditure
calories expended by physical activity and metabolism
calorie intake
calories supplied by food
diet resistance
the ability to lose weight by dieting
female athelete triad
a condition characterized by disordered eating, lack of menstrual periods, and low age-adjusted bone density
gastroplasty
bariatic surgery performed to limit the size of the stomach
hyperplasia
an increase in the number of cells
hypertrophy
an increase in the size of organs and muscle tissue
overcompensatory eating
an eating pattern characterized by overconsumption of low-fat foods, which causes an increase in total caloric intake
set point theory
theory that the body has a preference for a maintaining a certain amount of weight and defends that weight quite vigorously
thermic effect of food (TEF)
the amount of energy required by the body to digest, absorb, metabolize, and store nutrients
very low-calorie diet (VLCD)
a diet containing fewer than 800 calories a day
weight cycling
a potentially harmful pattern of repeated weight loss and weight gain
distress
the form of stress that results in negative responses
eustress
stress judged as "good," positive stress or stress that contributes to positive outcomes
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
a series of physiological changes that occur when a stressor is encountered; the GAS is conceived of as having three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
physchoneuroimmuninology (PNI)
the medical discipline whose philosophy rests on the connections among brain functions, the nervous system, and the body's response to infection and abnormal cell division
stress
the body's nonspecific response to any demands on it
binge drinking
consuming five or more drinks in a single session at least once during the previous two weeks, with the intent to become intoxicated
reward deficiency syndrome
a variety of disorders that have in common the traits of impulsiveness, addiction, and compulsiveness
abstinence
to completely refrain from engaging in a particular behavior
chlamydia
one of the most common sexually treated diseases
cunnilingus
oral sex performed on the female genitalia
fellatio
oral sex performed on the male genitalia (not necessarily your boyfriend, but sometimes he deserves it because he helps you a lot, a lot, a lot)
genital warts
warts on the genitalia (male or female)
gonorrhea
a bacterial disease that is sexually transmitted and can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including sterility and scarring of the heart valves
hepatitis B
one of five types of viral hepatitis; hepatitis B is one of the most serious types and can be transmitted sexually
herpes simplex virus (HSV)
the virus responsible for herpes genitalis, a sexually transmitted disease
viral hepatitis
an inflammation of of the liver caused by one or more viruses