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31 Cards in this Set

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MHC I
Present INTRACELLULAR antigens
To CYTOTOXIC T-CELLS
Via CD8
Found in all cells.
MHC II
Present EXTRACELLULAR antigens
To HELPER T-CELLS
Via CD4
Found only in Macrophages (TH1) and B-Cells (TH2)
IgE
Mast Cells vs Parasites.
Also Allergies
IgG
Opsonization
IgM
First antibody secreted
Classical Complement Pathway
Antibody mediated
Lectin Complement Pathway
Mannose Binding Lectin Mediated
Alternative Complement Pathway
Environmental Conditions
Functions of Complement
Recruit
Cover
Kill
Activators of Classical Complement Pathway
IgM -- Most efficient. Conformation shift prevents binding to free-floating Ig

IgG -- 2+ molecules in close proximity.
C1q Binds...
C1r cleaves Cls
C1s cleaves C4
C4b binds to cell surface
C1s cleaves C2
C2b binds to C4b
C4b2b cleaves C3
C3b binds to surface
Factor B binds to C3b
Factor D cleaves Factor B
C3bBb complex acts as C3 Convertase (like C4b2b)
CR1
Binds to C3b & C4b.
Located primarily on Erythrocytes (cleaned via liver/spleen)
Also on Podocytes (excess antibody can hurt kidney)
Membrane Attack Complex
C4b2b3b Cleaves C5
or C3b3bBb Cleaves C5
C6 binds to C5b
C7 binds to C5b6 & attaches
C8 binds to C5b67 & inserts
C9 binds to C5b678 & polymerizes
Anaphylatoxins
C5a, C3a, C4a --> Mast cells release histamine
C1INH
Binds to & inactivates C1r & C1s
Defective C1INH gene leads to Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema
C4BP
Competes with C2b for C4b binding site.
Factor I then cleaves & inactivates C4b
Factor H
Binds to C3b
Factor I then cleaves C3b -> iC3b
Human Cell Surface Proteins
DAF (binds to C3bBb & inactivates)
MCP (binds to C3bBb & inactivates)
CD59 (binds to C5b,6,7,8 complex to keep C9 from binding)
TLR
Toll-Like Receptors
Recognize microbial molecular patterns
Initiate NFkB cascade via IRAK
NFkB
Directs transcription of genes for Inflammatory Cytokines
Pyogenic Bacteria
Pus forming
Il-1 / Il-6 / TNF - alpha
systemic effects (fever)
Fever benefits
- bacterial replication
+ antigen processing
+ human cell resistance to TNF-alpha
IL-6
causes liver to produce:
CRP (opsonization)
MBL (complement)
Interferon
Signal viral infection
+MHC Class I expression & APC
Activate NK cells
+Resistance to Viral replication
Amyloid AL
Multiple Myeloma B-Cell
Amyloid AA
Chronic Inflammation
Lipofuscin Pigment
Autophagic Vacuoles.
Sign of Reversible Cell Injury
Brown, dirty granules
4 types of necrosis
Coagulative -- heart, kidney
Liquifactive -- Abcess or infarct of soft tissue
Caseous -- Lung replaced with cheese
Enzymatic Fat -- Pancreatitis or injury to breast or buttocks
Signs of Reversible Cell Damage
Low-Amplitude Swelling
Loss of PAS+ Glycogen
Cellular Swelling
RER Fragmentation
Fatty Change
Shape Change & Loss of Membrane Specializations
Autophagic Vacuoles (Lipofuscin Pigment)
Signs of Irreversible Cell Damage
High-Amplitude Swelling
Lysosomal Rupture
Condensation of Nucleus
Formation of Phospholipid Whorls