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120 Cards in this Set

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4 - square garden design
"outdoor Room", paths, kitchen garden, 4 equal sizes, crop rotation
All-American Trials
Trial of annual cultivars to determine best overall performance for every climate - best represented US climate
What are some components of a formalized garden?
paths, symmetry, focal point, benches
What type of plan does the Master Gardeners' IDEA have?
modification of the 4-square design, not a true kitchen garden
Substrate
Medium used for growing plants
* Friable
perfect balance of texture (often a loam) easy to work with, dry, crumbly
Peat Moss
Decomposted plants/animals.
Provides organic matter for retention of nutrients & water
Perlite
Volcanic Material.
Improves aeration & drainage. Acts as a soil insulator
Vermiculite
Clay/Minerals.
Space for air, water, nutrients, improves aeration/drainage
Soil Survey
records soil types & characteristics all over the state.
What are good characteristics of a good soilles media?
uniform size, well-drained, pest-free, good aeration, retains moisture, low-soluble salts
* Determinate
Pre-set flower buds plants grow vegetatively up to a point, then they enter the reproductive growth phase
Indeterminate
long vine - mature @ different times
Sun Scald
lack of protective folliage exposes fruit to intense sunlight causing a burn
Blossom End Rot
Calcium deficiency (maintain even watering)
Cracking
caused by fluctuations in soil moisture
Climacteric
Fruit continue to ripen & travel long distances
Lycopene
non-nutrietive carotenoid (disease prevention)
Capsaicin
fat soluble alkaloid compund that concentrates in seeds and placenta of fruit
Scoville Units
meauring heat of capsasin oil by diluting oil from a pepper variety w/ drops of water
Why is it that tomatoes can be harvested immature & then shipped long distances?
Climateric & lycopene. They continue to ripen after harvest & have disease prevention compounds
Tomatillo
originated in Mexico, harvested immature, tart, citric taste & apple like texture
Common problems with growing tomatoes & peppers
tomato Hornworm, blossom end rot, cracking, sun scald
What causes the hotness of peppers?
Where is it concentrated?
How can you put it out?
Capsaicin oil
Seeds & placenta of fruit
Starchy or fatty foods
Macro nutrients
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium
Secondary Nutrients
Calcium, Magnessium, Sodium
Liming
Replaces H+ w/ Ca2+ ions, adjusts pH
Incorporation
Rototill in soil
Side-dress
next to plant
Fertilizer Grade
guranteed minimum % of total N, P, K available
Mobility of Macronutrients
Nitrogen - most mobile, therfore the most leaching occurs
Phosphorous & Potassium are immobile nutrients
They replenish plants with nutrients
Optimum pH range for most plants?
6.2-6.8, this is where the most nutrients are available.
Difference between solid and liquid fertlizers?
Solid - slow release
Liquid - fast release & plants uptake instantly
How do you determine fertilizer application rates?
Bag of fertilizer, know fertilizer grade, send soil samples to lab & then do calculation
Law of Diminishing Returns
How much spent vs. how much is produced
Micronutrient treated Beets with
Boron
Microorganism treated Beans with
Rhizobium
what is the purpose of treating beans with Rhizobium?
so they develop nodules in order to get Nitrogen to the plant
Specialists
insects that attack a small range of plants
Generalists
insects attack a wide variety of plants or many plant families
Suckers
suck out plant juices
Chewers
chew/digest vegetative & reproductive parts of plant
Pyrethrum
organic pesticide & control: cucumber beetle, squash bugs, mealy bugs, moth larvae
Frass
Insect poop
Beneficials
feed on insects that eat the plants
Bt
Bacilus Thuringeinsis, organic pesticide for moths & butterflies
Rotenone
control beetles, thrips & looper, organic
Insects that Suck
aphids, spidermites, thrips, leaf hoppers, white flies
Insects that Chew
Colorado Potato beetle, Corn borer, flea beetle, cabbage worm, Japanese beetle
Generalists (EX)
Grasshopper, aphid, Japanese Beetle
Specialists (EX)
Green Lacewig, assasin bug, lady bird
Organic Pesticides
BT, Pyrethrum, Rotenone, neem
Syntheic Pesticides
Sevin, Pounce, Lorbsan
Annual
Single growing season
Biennial
Lasts 2 growing seasons, blooms second year
Perennial
Lasts more than 2 years
Hebicide
Chemical used for killing pests
Preemergent vs. postemergent herbicide
Pre- rapidly broken down in soil & can be used to kill weeds before crop seeds emerge
POST - applied after plant emerges
Doctrine of Signatures
people believed the part of the plant that looked like the body part was beneficial to that body part.
Three Sisters
Corn, Bean, Squash - Beans may grow up corn stalks, squash between corn rows saves space and reduces soil moisture loss, beans Fix nitrogen & gives to plants
Hybrid
May not be true to type seeds, need to buy seed every year
Heirloom
may re-plant (true to type)
Germination Test
% of seeds germinated under lab conditions
viability
how long seeds will last
Hardening off
slows rigorous growth, protective cuticle, plant gets used to harsher conditions & cooler weather, stores sugar/starch
Sets
small bulbs, onions
Crowns
roots, below ground tissue, new stalks come from
Seed pieces
tissue w/ pre-formed buds (potato)
Cuttings
part of stalk is removed & allowed to take root elsewhere
Why do vegetable seeds undergo chemical treatment?
Problem for organic farmers?
To ensure no pest, fungi

No organic fungicides
How long can most seeds be stored?
Seeds that cannont be stored long
1-2 years

Onion, parsley, parsnip
Advantages to direct seedling?

Transplanting?
- don't have to be hardened off, inexpensive, root system not disturbed, acclimate better

- start sooner & get an earlier crop, extend growing season
Essential oils
Volatile = preservation, flavor & aroma
* intermediate harvesting
promote vigorous foliage growth (remove flowers)
Fine Vs. Robust
Fine - eaten uncooked

Robust - added to foods while cooked
anti-oxidants
rid body of damaged cells
Herbs Vs. Spices
Herbs - vegetative part of plants, leaves, stem, temperate climate, more subtle flavor
Spices - more pungent, seeds, roots, bark, grown tropics
Both herbs & spices
Cilantro, corriander, anise
Why do herbs have mild pest problems compared to most vegetables?
Volatile oils keep pests away
Herbs that can be grown vegetatively?
rosemarry, Thyme, mint
Terracotta
Lose moisture rapidly, resist weather conditions better
Pot bound
will grow only as big as the container allows
ethylene
need air exchange in soil or else toxic builds up
Ways to ensure good drainage in container gardens
drian holes, 1 inch course gravel, make sure holes not blocked
Ways to make sure vegetables recieve adequate photoperiod?
Place near a south-facing window, place light over the plant
What characteristics make a plant good for container gardening?
shallow root system
* Food spoilage
any change in food that makes it less desireable
Foodborne illness
illness derived from food microorganism
canning
preserves food by heating high temperatures driving out oxygen (vacuum)
Drying
low moisture content prevents spoilage, microbes & chemical/biological reactions
Curring
salting reduces water availability to microbes & chemical reactions
Jams
whole fruit to a pulp w/ sugar
Jellies
fruit juice & sugar set w/ pectin or gelatin
fermenting
encourage growth of some bacteria, which consume part of food & create byproducts
freezing
slow chemical reactions, inhibit microbial growth
What are various factors that you can adjust in order to make food safe?
Temperature - higher or lower, enzymes denatured in chemical reactions
pH - higher or lower, inhibits microbial growth *4.6 magic # for killing boutilism
Water Availability - high concentrations of salt/sugar make water unavialable
Oxygen - necessary for spoilage
Hilling
make a mound over potato keeps tubers exposed from sun
* Straw Potatoes
Potatoes grown in 4-6 inches of straw, cooler, uniform temps (due to drainage issues)
*Collinsville, IL
World's horseradish supply
Cloves
fleshy leaf structure (of garlic)
Scales
Flesh leaves of onion bulbs
Allicin
Garlic
isothincynate
horseradish
Why do potatoes require hilling?
keeps tubers from sun exposure
Why should you plant radishes & carrots together in the same row?
because radishs grow quickly, help break soil crust
*late-season onions:
intense pungent flavor, good storage
*Early-season onions:
sweeter & milder, Higher water content, burise easily, don't store well
Examples of Tap roots, Lateral roots, Bulbs, Tubers
Tap - carrots, radishes
Lateral - sweet potatoes
bulbs - garlic
Tubers - potatoes
Symbiotic
Rhizobioum nitrogen fixation
Rhizobium
Nitrogen fixation that the plant can use
Root Nodules
uptake of nitrogen & form into Nitrogen plant can use
Fixation
N2 into NH4 or NO3 ammonium or nitrate that the plant can use
bush bean
free standing
Nitrification
changes NH4 - NO3 form
green manure
plant till into soil
cover crop
reduces erosion, acts as mulch
alfalfa
good cover crop
pole bean
grow on pole
Healthy legume nodules VS. unhealthy nodules
Healthy: pink, red color inside
Unhealthy: white/green inside
Advantages to using legumes as green manures & cover crops?
Examples of legumes as cover crops
catch & fix soil nitrogen, mulch, habitat for beneficial insects, supress weeds, retain moisture

EX: clover, alfalfa, fava beans, field peas