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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How much of an increase in ck post exercise is abnormal
greater than 4x baseline
muscle biopsy is the definitive test for diagnosis of what 3 diseases
1.polysaccharide storage myopathy mediated myositis
3.denervation atrophy
recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis occurs in what breed?
polysaccharide storage myopathy occurs in what breed(s)?
quarter horse
draught horses
what are the 4 underlying myopathy and 3 non underlying myopathy differentials for profound muscle cramping with exercise and elevated CK post exercise
A. 1.recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis
2.polysaccharide storage disorder
3.idiopathic chronic exertional rhabdomyolysis
4.mitochondrial myopathy
B. 1.overexertion
2.vitamin E or Se deficiency
3.electrolyte depletion
What are the 2 differentials for horses with altered gait but without underlying myopathy and muscle cramping, with/without elevated CK?
1.acute: muscle strain, sprain, tear
2.chronic:fibrotic myopathy
What are the 5 differentials for muscle weakness?
1.hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
2.myotonia congenita and dystrophica
3.equine motor neuron disease
4.equine polysaccharide storage myopathy in draught horses
5.tick paralysis
What are the 4 differentials for generalized muscle wasting (may be accompanied by mild elevations in CK)?
1.motor neuron disease
2.streptococcal immune mediatied myosisitis- IgG mediated(strep equi)
3.cachectic atrophy
4. disuse atrophy
What are the 3 differentials for segmental muscle wasting?
2.disuse atrophy
3.fibrotic myopathy
What are the 7 differentials for acute rhabdomyolysis with swollen painful musculature +/- recumbency and +/- death?
1.severe, acute exercise related rhabdomyolysis
2.Malignant hyperthermia/post anesthetic myopathy
3.sarcocystitis-strep immune mediated myosistis;henoch-schonlein IgA purpura
4.aortic-iliac thrombosis
5.toxic plants
6.Ionophore toxicity
What are the 2 most common plants that causes severe acute myopathy?
1.cassia occidentalis
2.white snake root
What are the 4 most common disorders of neonate muscles?
1.white muscle dz
2.foal rhabdomyolysis
3.glycogen branching enzyme deficiency
What is the autosomal dominant trait of quarter horses related to the stallion impressive?
hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)
Clinical signs of HYPP apear in horses with a K of _____
You see a 2.5 year old quarter horse that just started with intermittent episodes of muscle fasciculations, spasms, third eyelid prolapse, weakness, respiratory stridor, myotonia, and occasion episodes of recumbency. You notice that the episodes begin with tranisent muscle conctraction followed by skeletal muscle flaccidity. What is the most likely diagnosis?
How do you screen for HYPP?
DNA test of hair or blood.
How do you treat an HYPP horse that has a mild attack?
1.exercise the horse-stimulates adrenalin which moves K back into cells
2.feed grain-increase blood gulcose which releases insulin which moves K back into cells
3.administer acetazolamide orally-causes K renal excretion
What is the emergency treatment for HYPP severe attacks?
1.IV catheter and administer 23% calcium gluconate (150cc in 1-2 L of 5% glucose/500Kg).-majority will respond immediately and stand up
2.If no response follow with 1L of 5% sodium bicarbonate response- give 3L 5%dextrose IV, and montior K levels
How do you prevent HYPP episodes?
1.homo- acetazolamide
2.hetero- often maintained on low K diets
What are 2 known causes of viral myositis?
influenza A2 and EHV
What is the most common cause of infectious myositis?
clostridial-perfringes, septicum, or chaucoei
You see a 3month old foal that presents for weakness, inability to rise/suckle/swallow, dysspenea, cardiac arrhythmias, and myoglobinuria. The foal looks spetic and has marked muscle atrophy. Blood work shows hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. with elevated CK/AST. What is a likey diagnosis?
white muscle dz
You see a 7 year old quarter horse that presents for weight loss and muscle atrophy. You notice that the horse stands with a base narrow stance with the tail elevated. The horse appears to have a normal gait when walked but shows muscle tremors when made to stand still. You do a fundic exam and notice a mosaic pattarn to the tapetal zone, and a horizontal band of pigment at the junction of the tapteum and nontapetum. Blood work shows elevations in CK and AST. What is the most likely diagnosis?
motor neuron dz caused by chronic vitamin E deficiency.
what the onset of action and durtion of
lidocaine-short onset and duration(1-2hrs)
carbocaine-short onset and medium duration
bupicicaine-longer onset and duration (3-8hrs)
pastern ring block region desensitized?
mid pastern and below(blocks dorsal branch)
used instead of high PD
foot and pastern and coffin joints
basi-sesamoid block region desensitized
pastern and foot
blocks more of palmar pastern than ring block
usually not combined with ring block
abaxial sesamoid block region desensitized
entire palmar pastern and foot
may desensitize sesamoid bones and fetlock joint
low 4/6 point block region desensitized
distal metacarpal and below
high 4 point region desensitized
metacarpus or tarus
can desensitize two distal carpal joints
origin of suspensory?
tarsal joints?