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76 Cards in this Set

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What was the first ancestor of the common horse, and what does this name mean?
-Where and when were its fossils discovered?
Eohippus: "dawn horse"
-1834 in England
How long ago was the first ancestor alive? Where did it live? What did it look like (4 features).
-60 million years ago
-lived in swamps
-Had soft teeth, stood 1' tall, sheep-like head with jackrabbit-like hind end, and it had 4 toes on forefeet and 3 toes on hind feet.
What is the possible progenitor of ALL hooved animals? When did it live and how many toes?
"Condylarth" was from 75 million years ago and had 5 toes.
List the order or horses from first anscestor to modern horse, and what their names mean.
1) Eohippus; dawn horse
2) Mesohippus; middle horse
3) Merychippus; ruminant horse
4) Equus caballus; modern horse
When did Mesohippus live?
Where did it live?
Describe this horse (3 features)
-30 million years ago
-Lived in swamps
-2' tall with longer legs (more horse-like) and soft teeth. It also had only 3 toes on all feet.
When did Merychippus live?
Where did it live?
Describe it.
-10 Million years ago
-Lives more in grasslands than swamps
-3 or 4' tall, hard teeth, and side toes becoming vestigial.
What does the modern horse look like compared to its ancestors?
It is a true horse with hard teeth and single toes.
When was there a gap in the fossil records?
5 million years ago during the Great ice age
Where were fossils found that indicate a change 1 million years ago from Merchippus to Equus caballus?
Eurasia
Fossils were also found in the Western US showing horses lived here between what years? When did they disappear?
600,000-7000 BC. No more horses in North America by 7000 BC.
Who re-introduced the horse into the New World? When?
How about the Northern Hemisphere of the New World?
Columbus in 1494, then DeSoto in 1593.
When were horses most popular? Why and how many where around?
In 1915, horse used for draft purposes and numbered 21,431,000.
When were mules most numerous and how many? What made their numbers decline?
1925 used about 5,618,000 mules. The Industrial Revolution caused a great decline in their numbers.
How many horses are in the US today? How about VT?
8-10 million! ~35,000 in VT!
How many horses are involved in:
Racing?
Showing?
Recreation?
Misc. activities?
-750,000 racing
-2 mil showing
-3 mil recreation
-1.2 mil other
In Vermont, what is the most popular light horse breed? Draft breed? Pony breed?
1) Morgan= light
2) Belgians= draft
3) Haflinger= pony
How much money will be generated through showing of horses?
~$350 mil
What is the number one spectator sport? How much revenue is generated through this?
Horse racing generates about 1 billion dollars (a year?)!
How many full-time jobs revolve around horses?
1.4 million
Where did the name "horse" come from? What does it mean?
The Anglo-Saxon word "hors" means swiftness.
Describe the characterisics of the light horses.
-taller than 14.2 hands
-weigh about 9-14,000 Lbs.
-used primarily for riding, driving, racing, and utility.
Describe the characterisics of the Draft horses.
-over 14.2 hands
-weigh about 1400 Lbs
-Used mosly for work and show
Describe the characterisics of the Pony.
-less than 14.2 hands
-weigh less than 900 Lbs
What is a hand? What do we measure to find a horses height?
1 hand= 4". Measure from the ground to the point of withers.
How tall are miniature horses? What was the largest horse in hands?
Less than 8.2 hands. Largest horse was about 21 hands!!
Define "Breed".
A group of horses having a common origin and possessing certain well fixed, distinctive uniformly transmitted characteristics that are not common to other horses. ~300 worldwide.
How are draft breeds named?
Named after place of origin.
List 5 draft breeds.
1) Percheron
2) Belgian
3) Clydesdale
4) Shire
5) Suffolk (Suffolk-Punch)
List 5 pony breeds.
1) Shetland
2) P.O.A. (Pony of the Americas)
3) Welsh
4) Hackney
5) Connemara
List 7 light horse breeds.
1) Quarterhorse
2) Appaloosa
3) Thoroughbred
4) Standardbred
5) Arabian
6) American Saddlebred
7) Morgan
Describe the Percheron
-once the most popular draft breed
-blacks and greys
-originated in France
-no feathers
What are feathers?
Hair over the pasterns.
Describe the Belgian.
-most popular draft breed
-brought from Belgium in 1866
-sorrell in color
-no feathers
Describe the Clydesdale.
-originated in Scotland
-extensive white leg and face markings
-has feathers
-characteristic gait with extreme flexion of hocks and knees
Describe the Shire.
-from England
-largest of draft breeds
-many colors
-has feathers
Describe the Suffolk
-From England
-all chestnuts
-no feathers
Describe the Shetland
From Scotland and less than 10 hands.
Describe the P.O.A.
It has appaloosa characteristics because it's a cross between a Shetland pony stallion and and Appaloosa mare.
Describe the Welsh pony
Developed in Wales
Describe the Hackney pony
Developed in England and shown in harness.
Fill in proper terminology.
Refer to notes for horse-specific locations
Describe the Connemara
A large pony developed in Ireland and very versatile.
Describe the Quarterhorse
-First breed developed in the US (Virginia/Carolinas
-The most popular breed
-Versatile (race, work, pleasure, show)
Describe the Appaloosa
-developed in Asia about 2400 years ago
-white sclera
-specific coat patterns
-striped hooves
-mottled skin around lips, muzzle, genitalia, nostrils and eyes.
How did the Appaloosa come to N.America and develop?
-brought to N.America by Spanish invaders of Mexica in 1600's
-by 1700's, the horses had migrated to Idaho/Oregon where the Nez Perce and Palouse Indians practived selective breeding.
Describe the Thoroughbred
-originated in England
-brought to US in 1730
-foundation stock for many U.S. breeds such as the Standardbred, Morgan, Q.H., and Saddlebred.
Describe the Standardbred
-originally called American Trotting Horse
-Known for trot vs pace
-In order to be registered, it had to pace or trot a mile in "standard" time.
Describe the Arabian
-Bred 2,000 years ago
-brought to US during Revolutionary war
-known for versatility and endurance
Describe the American Saddlebred
-mixture of T.B., Canadian paver, American trotter, Morgan, and Arabian
-3 vs 5 gaited (walk, trot, canter, rack slow gait)
Describe the Morgan
-A Thoroughbred stallion and Arabian more mix
-known for versatility
What is the difference between roan and grey horses?
-Roan horses have a mixture of white and colored hairs. Grey horses start as a solid color and lighten with age.
What are 3 roan colors and the hair that makes it?
1) red roan: bay
2) blue roan: dark brown, black
3) strawberry roan: chestnut
What is the scientific name for an ass?
Equus assinus
What is a male ass called? Female ass?
-Jack
-Jennet
What is a jack/mare called?
mule
What is a stallion/jennet called?
Hinny
Which animals or combinations are sterile?
Mules and hinny's.
What are the small asses?
Donkey's and burro's.
What is different about an ass compared to a horse?
-longer ears
-sparser mane and tail
-more brush-like tail
-smaller hooves
-lighter muzzle and belly
-characteristic bray
-langer gestation period (30 days more)
dorsal
Towards the back (head, neck, trunk, tail, legs)
ventral
Opposite of dorsal, towards belly. NOT used on limbs (head, neck, trunk, tail)
anterior vs posterior
towards the front vs towards the back
cranial vs?
caudal
proximal vs distal
(nerves and vessels?)
closer to trunk vs away from trunk.
nerves= CNS, blood vessels= heart.
palmar
opposite of dorsal in forelegs
plantar
opposite of dorsal in hindlegs
median plane
divides head, body or limb longitudinally into equal right and left halves
medial
toward or relatively near the median plane
lateral
away from or relatively further from median plane
What is the correct term for what humans call the horses knee?
The carpus. Actually analogous to the human wrists.
What is the correct term for what humans call the horses ankle?
The fetlock. Analogous to the human knuckle.
What is the body part that is analogous to the human knee?
The stifle.
What is the tibial joint in horses?
The fermoro.
What is the patellar joint in horses?
The femoro.
What body part is analogous to the human ankle? What it is composed of?
The hock. Composed of 4 joints.
Fill in proper terms
Horse Anatomy