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47 Cards in this Set

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Emergency Kit
thermometer, watch, flashlight hemostats, vet wrap, bandages, betadine ointment, vaseline, stethoscope, scissors, gauze, towels, triple antibiotic
types of emergencies
colic, wounds, eye, fever, lameness, choke, periparturient probs, trauma
colic
spasmodic, gas, displacement, torsion/volvulus, impaction, intussusception
Gi tract
100 ft, cardiac sphincter - can't vomit
spasmodic colic
mild, intermittent pain, 1-2 hours, responds to pain meds and walking
gas colic
hindgut fermentation, changes in diet, barometer, stress, gas builds up in intestine
displacement
movement of intestine, wrong place
torsion/volvulus
intestine rotates on itself , cutting off blood suppy
torsion - long axis
volvulus - perpendicular axis
impaction
intestine filled with dry ingesta
caused by not enough water, stress, eating dry matter, internal parasites
signs of colic
pawing, rolling, lying down, flank watching, kicking at belly, anorexia, restlessness, sweating
plan for colic
stay safe, keep horse walking, don't let horse drink or eat, physical exam, batamine
diagnosis of colic
PE, heart rate elevated, decreased gut sounds, distended abdomen, pale to purple mucous membranes
further diagnostics of colic
sedation, rectal, nasogastric intubation - reflux, mineral oil, water, dss, electrolytes, bloodwork, ultrasound, abdomnocentesis
treatment for colic
banamine - anti pain and inflammatory
IV fluids and electrolytes, more pain meds, surgery
consequences of wounds
loss of blood/ death
damage to supporting structures
infection - cellulitis, tetanus
plan for wound
keep horse quiet, clean dry enviroment, gentle washing, non stick dressing reduce contamination, prevent infection
exceptions to plan for wound
bleeding profusely, around eyes, exposed bone, into sterile cavity joint, abdomen, thorax
diagnosis of wound
determine structures involved, determine cleanliness
treatment of wounds
sedation, local block lidocaine, clean, debride (most important) closure, penrose drainage tube antibiotics inflammatory,tetanus
flap
blood flow from top down
coronary band wound
affects hoof growth
suturing
best if 12-12 hours
don't if over 24 hours or dirty
proud flesh
distal limbs,exuberant granulation tissue, abundant blood supply, must be level for cells to migrate
wonderdust to level off proud flesh
corpora nigra, iridic granules
black spots, stalagtites
signs of eye problems
squinting, discharge, redness, swelling cloudiness
corneal ulcer
defect on outer layer of eye
caused by trauma,
uveitis
moon blindness, inflammation of interior eye caused by leptospirosis, heredity, auto-immune
diagnosis of eye problems
opthalmoloscope/ indirect lens
fluorescein, rose bengal stain, nerve block to look at inner eyelids
treatment of eye probs
keep horse quiet and away from light, ulcer - triple antibiotic, antiinflammatory, hot compress,
uveitis steroid, banamine
eye treatment cont.
lavage system, corneal debridement, grid keratectomy, tarsorraphy, enucleation
fever
greater than 101.5
signs and causes of fever
anorexia, lethargy, depression, sweating, panting,
virus and bacteria
other causes of fever
colitis X, peritonitis, neoplasia, pneumonia, infected wound, bacterial endocarditis
acute severe lamanitis
not bearing weight evenly, head bobbing, walking on egg shells, swollen legs, pain on palpation, crepitus - bone crunch
causes of acute lameness
abscess, laminitis, fracture, pulled tendon, cellulitis
diagnosis of lameness
hoof testers, flexions, nerve or joint blocks, radiographs, ultrasound
treatment of absess
open with hoof knife - allow drain
soak in warm water (salt, betadine) clean wrap, anti inflam, stall rest
treatment of lameness
frog support, anti-inflam, vasodilators, deeply bed stall, limit movement, determine cause
fracture treatment
keep horse quiet, hospital with surgical repair, stall rest with cast
treatment of pulled soft tissue
rest, anti inflam, muscle relaxor, shockwave, acupuncture
treatment of cellulitis
antibiotics, anti inflam, cold hose, wrap, look for wound
choke
esophageal obstruction. local inflammation, possible rupture
signs of choke
nasal discharge, oral discharge, odor, distress, coughing/ stretching palpable obstruction
causes of choke
dry matter, large matter, poor dentition, esophageal immotility
diagnosis
PE, clinical signs, possible palpable mass in neck
treatment of choke
horse quiet, head down, remove feed and water sedation buscopan, nasalgastric ntubation, warm water lavage, anti inflam, antibiotics
diagnosis trauma
assess situation, sedate or anesthetize, treat wounds, fractures or euthanasia