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18 Cards in this Set

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Thyroid tumors in horses:
- age group?
- follicular or parafolliculs/C cell?
- older horses
- IHC+ calcitonin and NSE, negative for thyroglobulin. So C cell. Non functional.
JCP 131(2-3):157 2004
Experimental endotoxin-induced injury of central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems and intestinal muscularis in thoroughbred horses:
Lesions?
CNS:
- perivascular edema around arterioles suggesting brain edema
- ring hemorrhages around veins
Cranial mesenteric ganglia:
- neuronal hypereosinophilia, shrinkage, vacuolation (ischemic)
- erythrocytes, neutrophils around arterioles in epineurium
Myenteric neurons:
- shrinkage, vacuoles (ischemic)
Intestinal muscularis:
- oedematous degeneration
- coagulation necrosis
- dissociation of cells
Suggested: arterionecrosis elicited by endotoxin was result of vasoconstriction or vasospasm.
JCP 2007 vol 136 127-132
Main lesions in the brain of horses without neurologic disease?
Statistically significant age-related changes?
- vacuolation neuropil
- vacuolation neurons
- vacuolation white matter
- focal perivascular lymphoid cell infiltrates
- spheroids
Age-related:
- intraneuronal, glial or extracellular lipofuscin deposition
- hemosiderin deposition around blood vessels
- calcium depositions
Vet Path 43 740 2006
Equine influenza:
- which subtypes, and which most virulent?
- usual severity?
- CNS lesion in 2 unusually severe cases in the UK in 2003?
- H7N7, H3N8 (latter more virulent)
- usually transient, self-limiting
- nonsuppurative encephalitis
Daly et al 2005
Equine and feline dysautonomias:
histopath lesions?
use of synaptophysin?
Degenerating neurons with chromatolysis, pyknotic and sometimes eccentric nuclei, loss of Nissl substance in peripheral autonomic ganglia.
Synaptophysin IHC is a tool to distinguish pathological from post-mortem changes. Accumulation of synaptophysin in cytoplasm of degenerating neurons.
Synaptophisin: major membrane protein of synaptic vesicles. Expressed in neuroendocrine tissues, CNS, PNS.
JCP 132(2-3):223-7
Usefulness of ubiquitin IHC in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy?
Which fibers affected in PSSM?
Breeds?
Clinical manifestations?
No more sensitive than PAS in diagnosis.
Type IIa (ox + glyc), and IIb (glyc) fibers affected.
Quarter Horse, Paint, draft-related horses.
Exert. rhabdomyolysis, weakness, backpain, postanesthetic myopathy, muscular atrophy.
Vet Pathol 43:270-275 2006
Horses with left-sided intrinsic laryngeal muscle atrophy:
Myosin heavy chain composition compared to normal?
Shift from type I to type IIb myofibers, fiber type grouping. Consistent with denervation.
Vet Pathol 43:881-889 (2006)
Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma?
Associated with mitotic index?
27 % + (paraffin embedded tissue)
Yes, associated with mitotic index.
NB (other?) investigators recently harvested 14 equine SCC lesions in liquid nitrogen and by Western blot analysis detected COX-2 enzyme in all samples.
JVDI 19:436 2007
Equine granulosa cell tumors:
Malignant versus benign: changes in IHC levels of cerb, vimentin, GSTalpha?
Pathogenesis of contralateral ovarian atrophy?
All less in malignant tumors. And absent in metastases.
Presence of Leydig cells in mares with stallion-like behaviour and/or high serum testosterone.
GCTs produce inhibin -> FSH release reduced -> contralateral ovary atrophic.
Ellenberger et al.
Features of equine lymphoma?
Cell type, lnn enlargement, inflammation?
T cell lymphoma more frequent than B cell lymphoma.
Inflammation is frequent.
Lnn infrequently involved.
Vet Pathol 43:914 2006
Main gross lesions in foals due to Rhodococcus equi?
- pyogranulomatous pneumonia
- lymphadenitis
- polyarthritis
- ulcerative enteritis
- sporadic other organs
This paper: 2 cases of abortion; fetal lesions as in foals.
Vet Pathol 43:208 2006
What is equine canker?
Role of spirochetes in foot pathology in livestock?
Chronic, hyperproliferative, suppurative and pyogranulomatous pododermatitis of the frog, bars, sole and sometimes the adjacent hoof wall.
This paper: spirochetes in 3 horses with canker.
Livestock:
Grease heel: papillomatous pastern pododermatitis.
Papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.
Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (=virulent foot rot) in sheep.
JVDI 17(3):269 2005
In response to equine herpesvirus 1, compare the immediate early gene response of the placenta to the lung in fetuses.
And the late gene response?
Immediate early: comparable.
Late: weaker in placentas than in lungs.
JCP 2004 130 41-47
Equine herpesvirus-1 in fetal membranes of aborted equine fetuses:
IHC+ in which cells?
trophoblastic cells, occasionally in monocytes and endothelial cells.
Related to:
1. vacuolar degen / desquam chorionic epith
2. lym-his vasculitis and placentitis
3. increased metabolic activ of mesench cells in villi of fetal membranes.
JCP 129(2-3)147-53 2003
Which intoxication can cause lesions of osteochondrosis in foals?
Zinc (-> copper deficiency)
McG Ch16
1. The osteoclast differentiates under the aegis of which two critical cytokines?
2. Which cytokine also promotes osteoclastogenesis, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis?
3. How is the effect of RANK balanced by osteoblasts?
1. RANK ligand, M-CSF.
2. TNFalpha.
3. OPG (from osteoblasts) is a decoy receptor that binds RANKL, preventing interaction with RANK.
AJP 2007 170:427-435
Name the borders of the epiploic foramen.
- dorsal: caudate liver lobe and caudal vena cava
- ventral: right pancreas lobe, gastropancreatic ligament, portal vein
- cranial: hepatoduodenal ligament
- caudal: junction of pancreas and mesoduodenum
McG p.351
Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis:
- etiology?
- gross?
- histo?
- which cells are infected?
- Equine herpesvirus 5
- multiple nodules of fibrosis
- marked interstitial fibrosis, with an "alveolar-like" architecture lined by cuboidal epithelial cells; neu/macr in airways; rare macrophages contained large eo INIB
- macrophages, nuclei. TEM, ISH, PCR.
PCR + in all affected and none of controls.
Vet Pathol 44:849 2007