Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stimulates milk ejection from breasts and causes uterine contractions (child birth and copulation); comes frmm the pituitary gland
growth, prolactine, adrenocorticotropic, thyrotropic, gonadotropic, follicle stimulating, lutenizing
ormation of glucose within the animal body from precursors other than carbohydrates especially by the liver and kidney using amino acids from proteins, glycerol from fats, or lactate produced by muscle during anaerobic glycolysis
Produced by: pineal gland; Target: most cells; Function: puberty onset regulation, body cycle regulation especially of sleep/wake cycles; Secretion regulated by: natural light inhibits, darkness stimulates release.
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Produced by: adrenal cortex; Target: kidneys; Function: regulate electrolyte balance by stimulating retention of sodium from the urine; Secretion regulated by: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism, blood volume, blood osmolarity, ACTH, ANF
growth hormone
main hormone that controls growth post-natally: most important hormone for post natal growth; stimulates cell division; stimulates release of IGF from liver; simulates protein synth. by increasing uptake of aa in tissue and making RNA
a protein hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary that induces lactation
Increase BP, increase sweat, increase blood to brain, skeletal muscles and skin, decrease activity of the GI/urinary systems, dilate pupils
development to abnormally large size from excessive growth of the long bones accompanied by muscular weakness and sexual impotence and usually caused by hyperpituitarism before normal ossification is complete -- called also macrosomia
Produced by: pancreas; Target: most cells especially muscle cells; ,Function: decrease blood glucose levels by increasing cellular uptake and use of glucose for glycogenolysis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis; Secretion regulated by: concentrations of glucose, fats and amino acids in the blood, and somatostatin
Produced by: pancreas; Target: liver hepatocytes; Function: increase blood glucose levels by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis; Secretion regulated by: concentrations of glucose and amino acids in the blood, and somatostatin.
Vitamin D
any or all of several fat-soluble vitamins chemically related to steroids, essential for normal bone and tooth structure, and found especially in fish-liver oils, egg yolk, and milk or produced by activation (as by ultraviolet irradiation) of sterols
a mixture of polypeptides isolated from the thymus; also : any of these polypeptides
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Target: gonads; Function: stimulate egg production, sperm production; Secretion regulated by: GnRH, negative feedback
a basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side, forms the floor of the third ventricle, and includes vital autonomic regulatory centers (as for the control of food intake)
releasing factor
any hormone that is secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland directly to secrete a hormone -- called also hypothalamic releasing hormone, releasing factor
inhibiting factors
caused by a protein, most often, and it is a fact that inhibits the development of a particular hormone from a particular gland; the factor itself is the protein or macromolecule that actually induces the inhibition
adrenal cortex
ediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.
adrenal medulla
part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. Composed mainly of hormone-producing chromaffin cells, the adrenal medulla is the principal site of the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into the catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and dopamine.
glucocorticoid (cortisol)
Produced by: adrenal cortex; Target: most cells; Function: decrease the effects of stress by increasing blood [lucose]; Secretion regulated by: CRH, ACTH, negative feedback
pineal gland
a small endocrine gland in the brain. It is shaped like a tiny pine cone, and is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join. It produces a hormone that may weakly modulate wake/sleep patterns. A recent review of the pineal and its secreted hormone, melatonin, is available
feedback inhibition
inhibition of an enzyme controlling an early stage of a series of biochemical reactions by the end product when it reaches a critical concentration
a product of living cells that circulates in body fluids (as blood) or sap and produces a specific often stimulatory effect on the activity of cells usually remote from its point of origin -- called also internal secretion
a polypeptide hormone especially from the thyroid gland that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma -- called also thyrocalcitonin
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
a hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body -- abbreviation PTH; called also parathormone
a disorder that is caused by chronic overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland and is characterized by a gradual and permanent enlargement of the flat bones (as the lower jaw) and of the hands and feet, abdominal organs, nose, lips, and tongue and that develops after ossification is complete
MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
Target: melanocytes; Function: stimulate melanin production; Secretion regulated by: hypothalamus, nervous system
TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
Target: thyroid; Function: stimulate thyroid development, secretion of TH; Secretion regulated by: TRH, GHIH, negative feedback
trophic hormone
anterior pituitary-secreted hormones that regulate the activity of various endocrine glands. For instance, TSH, ACTH, FSH are secreted by the anterior pituitary and function to increase metabolic rate and body temperature.
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
Target: adrenal cortex; Function: stimulate secretion of corticosteroids to combat stress; Secretion regulated by: CRH, negative feedback
thyroid gland
a large bilobed endocrine gland of craniate vertebrates that arises as a median ventral outgrowth of the pharynx, lies in the anterior base of the neck or anterior ventral part of the thorax, is often accompanied by lateral accessory glands sometimes more or less fused with the main mass, and produces especially the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine
an iodine containing hormone C15H11I4NO4 that is an amino acid produced by the thyroid gland as a product of the cleavage of thyroglobulin, increases the metabolic rate, and is used to treat thyroid disorders; also called T4
parathyroid gland
mall endocrine glands in the neck, usually located behind the thyroid gland, which produce parathyroid hormone. In rare cases the parathyroid glands are located within the thyroid glands. Most often there are four parathyroid glands, but some people have six or even eight.
adrenal gland
triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, "near" or "at" + -renes, "kidneys"). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol and adrenaline.
vasopressin ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
polypeptide hormone that is secreted together with oxytocin by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, is also obtained synthetically, and increases blood pressure and exerts an antidiuretic effect -- called also antidiuretic hormone
a large lobulated gland that in humans lies in front of the upper lumbar vertebrae and behind the stomach and is somewhat hammer-shaped and firmly attached anteriorly to the curve of the duodenum with which it communicates through one or more pancreatic ducts and that consists of (1) tubular acini secreting digestive enzymes which pass to the intestine and function in the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates