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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the general functions of hormones?
extracellular fluid
metabolism
biological clock
contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle
glandular secretion
some immune functions
"Which lobe are special neuroglial cells called pituicytes found?"
"posterior"
"What lobe of the pituitary gland constitutes the smaller?"
"posterior lobe at 25%"
"What lobe constitutes the larger part of the pituitary gland?"
"anterior"
"Where is the pituitary gland found?"
"in sella turcica of sphenoid"
"Where does the hypothalamus receive input?"
"cortex
"What are the master endocrine glands?"
"hypothalamus and pituitary gland"
"Where and what occurs during positive feedback?"
"Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions
"What local hormones act on the same cells that secrete them?"
"autocrine"
"What local hormone acts on neighboring cells?"
"paracrine"
Which lobe has ends of axons of 10,000 neurons found in hypothalamus?
posterior
What lobe of the pituitary gland has special neuroglial cells called pituicytes?
posterior
Are produced by thryotrophs, regulated by the hypothalamus; stimulate T3, T4 and the metabolic rate.
TSH
This releasing hormone from the hypothalamus controls gonadotrophs and stimulates the secretion of estrogen and sperm.
FSH
This hormone is responsible for the formation of corpus luteum and progesterone in females and the stimulation of interstitial cells to secrete testosterone.
LH (leutinizing)
These hormones regulate the secretion of milk from the breast.
Prolactin - lactotrophs
Are secreted by corticotrophs and stimulate cells of the adrenal cortex that produce glucocorticoids.
ACTH
Secreted by corticotroph cells, this hormone increases its release From the anterior pituitary; Function not certain in humans
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
This hormone targets both the uterine (contraction) and the mammary glands (milk secretion)
oxytocin
The stimulation of the uterus by baby from the secretion of oxytocin during labor is what example of feedback?
positive
Also known as vasopressin, its function is to decrease urine production, decrease sweating, and
increase BP
ADH
How is ADH regulated?
During dehydration, ADH is released.
During overhydration, ADH is inhibited
These thyroid hormones responsible for our metabolic rate, synthesis of protein, breakdown of fats, use of glucose for ATP production
T3 + T4
This thyroid hormone is responsible for building of bone & stops reabsorption of bone (lower blood levels of Calcium)
calcitonin
Describe the negative feedback of T3 and T4:
Low blood levels of hormones stimulate hypothalamus
It stimulates pituitary to release TSH
TSH stimulates gland to raise blood levels
What is the antagonist of calcitonin?
-parathyroid hormone.

increase activity of osteoclasts
increases reabsorption of Ca2+ by kidney
inhibits reabsorption of phosphate (HPO4)-2
promote formation of calcitriol (vitamin D3) by kidney which increases absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ by intestinal tract
What increases hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla?
acetalcholine
Where do endocrine cells secrete?
Near a capillary immediately
Low blood glucose stimulates release of _____________.
glucagon
High blood glucose stimulates secretion of _________.
insulin
Melatonin is responsible for setting of biological clock; where is it found?
pineal gland